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l-J.-J ^^ 




Contadnin^ brief zwnd 2v,ccur&.te 
accounts of the proper names men- 
tioned in classical literature 

Edited with Introduction by 

Edwzwrd S. Elliy-. A. M, 

Author of " Plutarch's Lives," etc. 



The Penn Publbhin^ C^ompany 


Copyright 1895 by the Woolfall Company 

Copyright 1900 by the Penn Tuulishing Compani 


The word classic or classical is defined as 
pure, refined ; conformed to the best and most 
perfect standard; also pertaining to the 
ancient Greek and Latin authors, or rendered 
famous b}' association with ancient writers, as 
" classic ground." 

The ancient Romans were divided into six 
classes. Those of the highest class were 
called classici, and from this the term came 
to signify the highest and purest class of 
writers in any language, though at first ap- 
plied only to the most esteemed Greek and 
Latin authors. 

Whether an ancient writer should be ranked 
as a classic is not determined (as it would 
seem ought to be the case) by what he wrote, 
but by the period in which he wrote. The 
classical age of Greek literature begins with 



Homer, the earliest Greek writer whose 
works are extant, and extends probably to 
the time of the Roman emperor Antonine, 
although signs of decadence began to appear 
about 300 B.C. 

The Latin classical period is not so ex- 
tended, its earliest writer being Plautus, and 
it came to an end about 200 a.d. There are 
some, however, who include Claudian, born 
near 365 a.d., among the classics. 

Humanism is that theory of education 
which aims to give a symmetrical develop- 
ment to the intellectual and moral powers b}^ 
means of the study of the classical literature 
and arts, or more largely the study of the 
classics, or the culture of belles-lettres in 

The history of Humanism divides itself 
into four distinct periods. 

I. The formative period, extending from 
the fifth century before to the fifth century 
after Christ. H. The period of the Middle 
Ages. HI. The Renaissance or revival of 
learning, extending from the beginning of 
the fourteenth to the end of the eighteenth 


century. IV. The period of philological 
science, embracing a portion of the eigh- 
teenth and the nineteenth centuries. 

I. The Formative Period. — The systematic 
use of literary studies in education appears to 
have begun among the ancients about the 
fifth century B.C. The ridiculed sophists 
and rhetoricians gave a new direction to 
education by their attempt to make it more 
practical, thus greatly helping all the arts 
connected with literature, — as grammar, 
rhetoric, logic, lexicography, etc. Studies 
were expanded after the founding of Alex- 
andria. The scholarly investigation and ex- 
planation of the literary monuments of the 
past began and were pressed by the profes- 
sors and librarians of Alexandria. 

Toward the close of the second century 
B.C., the Romans began to investigate Greek 
education, and during the following century 
the Roman methods were remodeled along 
the Greek lines. The third and fourth cen- 
turies A.D. may be considered the golden age 
of professors. By the close of the fourth cen- 
tury a regular system had been formulated, 


which was accepted everywhere by gentile 
and Christian, and handed down from gener- 
ation to generation. 

II. The Mediceval Period. — In the fifth cen- 
tury A.D., the successive barbarian invasions 
of the ancient world began, and the old order 
of things was overturned. The Germans 
destroyed the gentile world, with its philoso- 
phers and teachers. Only Christianity and 
education survived. Education was in the 
hands of Christians, but it suffered prodigious 
losses. Schools and libraries were destroyed ; 
scholars decreased, and the civilized world 
steadily shrank. The rich and cultivated 
provinces of Africa fell into the hands of the 
Moslems who overran Spain. The whole 
Eastern empire was cut off from the West. 
In the fifth and sixth centuries only a few 
vestiges of civilization remained in Gaul. 
At the close of the sixth and the beginning 
of the seventh century, the remote province 
of Ireland was the only point where studies 
and scholarship had a foothold, and from 
that point went out the first impulses for a 
revival of the decaying study of literature. 


England was the first to respond to the im- 
pulse, and her people helped the Irish to carry 
it to the Continent. A revival of encyclo- 
paedic learning took place in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, and led to an investiga- 
tion and study of what may be called the 
great sources of knowledge. 

III. The Renaissance. — France held the in- 
tellectual leadership of Europe during the 
Middle Ages. In the fourteenth century, it 
passed to Italy, and was accompanied by so 
remarkable an intellectual revolution that it 
is called a " new birth" — renaissance. This 
revival was marked by an extraordinary 
enthusiasm for the classics. The first man 
of the Renaissance, and at the same time the 
first modern humanist, was Petrarch, born in 
the year 1304, whose pioneer work in clearing 
the ground of the " new way" approached the 

The appointment of Manuel Chrysoloras, a 
Byzantine scholar, as professor of Greek in 
Florence, in 1396, brought about as a result a 
true revival of Greek studies. From him and 
from his pupils descended the increasing 


generations of Greek scholars, who during 
the fifteenth century made known to western 
Europe the great originals and models of all 
classical literary art. Every portion of Ital- 
ian culture was profoundly modified. The 
great discovery of printing about this time 
gave a permanence to the Renaissance. The 
first printed Latin book to be sent abroad 
was Cicero's De Officiis, published in 1465. 
The first Greek authors to be printed were 
Theocritus and ^sop, which appeared to- 
gether about 1480. 

Humanism gradually triumphed in France, 
and thence conquered Spain early in the 
fifteenth century. It made slower progress 
among the German nations. Although 
Germany was brought into frequent political 
contact with Italy during the whole period 
of Italian humanism, she hardly felt its in- 
fluence until the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, but to-day Germany is the chief seat of 
classical learning. 

IV. PJiilological Science Period. — This peri- 
od may be considered as embracing the pres- 
ent and an indefinite portion of the future. 


The spread of philological science and classi- 
cal learning in general, it may be claimed, is 
universal among all nations making any pre- 
tence to civilization, 

E. S. E. 
MAY, i8(^^ 



Aby'dos. A city of Asia opposite Sestos in Eu- 
rope. Its fame rests upon the loves of Hero 
and Leander, and here also Xerxes built his 
bridge of boats across the Hellespont. Hero 
was a maiden of wondrous beauty, who was 
dedicated by her parents to Venus' service. 
As soon as she was old enough, she spent all 
her time in the temple, ministering to the 
goddess, or in a lonely tower by the sea, 
where she lived alone with her aged nurse. 
Leander, deeply smitten with the charms of 
Hero, was in the habit of swimming across 
the Hellespont, she displaying a signal for 
him. One stormy night, while attempting 
the feat, he was drowned. Hero saw the 
body the next morning tossing up and down 
in the waves at the foot of the tower. In her 
grief she threw herself into the sea and per- 
ished by his side. Lord Byron, in " The Bride 


of Abydos, " thus alludes to the touching in- 
cident : 

•' The winds are high on Helle's wave, 
As on that night of stormy water, 
When Love, who sent, forgot to save 
The young, the beautiful, the brave, 
The lonely hope of Sestos' daughter." 

Aby dos. A town of Egypt, where stood the 
famous temple of Osiris. 

Acade'mi'a. A place surrounded with trees near 
Athens, belonging to Academus, from whom 
the name is derived. Here Plato opened his 
school of philosophy, and from this every 
place sacred to learning has ever since been 
called Academia. 

Acha'tes. -.^neas and Achates were friends. 
The devotion of Achates was so unselfish and 
exemplary that Fidus Achates became a 

Achelo us. The son of Oceanus and Terra, or 
Tethys, god of the river of the same name in 
Epirus. As one of the numerous suitors of 
Dejanira, he entered the lists against Her- 
cules, and being inferior, changed himself 
into a serpent, and afterwards into an ox. 
Hercules broke off one of his horns and de- 
feated him, after which, according to some, 
he was changed into a river. 

Acheron. To separate that portion of Hades re- 
served for the punishment of the wicked, 
Pluto surrounded it with Phlegethon, a river 
of fire, while the Acheron, a deep and black 


stream, had to be passed by all souls before 
they reached Pluto's throne and heard his de- 
cree. The word Acheron is also used to sig- 
nify Hades or hell itself. 

Achilles, the son of Peleus and Thetis, was the 
bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war. 
During his infancy. Thetis plunged him in 
the Styx, thus making every part of his body 
invulnerable except the heel by which she 
held him. To prevent him from going to the 
Trojan war, Thetis sent him privately to the 
court of Lycomedes, where he was disguised 
in a .female dress. As Troy could not be 
taken without his aid, Ulysses went to the 
court of Lycomedes in the habit of a mer- 
chant, and exposed jewels and arms for sale. 
Achilles, choosing the arms, discovered his 
sex, and went to the war. Vulcan made him 
a strong suit of armor, which was proof 
against all weapons. He was deprived by 
Agamemnon of his favorite Briseis, and for 
this affront he would not appear on the field 
till the death of Patroclus impelled him to 
vengeance. He slew Hector, who had killed 
Patroclus, and tying his corpse to his war-car, 
dragged it three times round Troy. He is 
said to have been killed by Paris, who inflicted 
a mortal wound in his vulnerable heel with 
an arrow. 

Actae'on. A famous huntsman, son of Aristseus 
and Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus. He saw 
Diana and her attendants bathing, for which 


he was changed into a stag and devoured by 
his own dogs. 

Ac'tium. A town and promontory of Epirus, 
famous for the naval victory which Augustus 
obtained over Antony and Cleopatra, b.c. 31. 

A'des or Hades, The god of hell among the 
Greeks ; the same as the Pluto of the Latins. 
The word is often used for hell itself by the 
ancient poets and in modern writings. 

Adher'bal. Son of Micipsa, and grandson of 
Masinissa, was besieged at Cirta, and put to 
death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the 
aid of Rome, b.c. 112. 

Adme'tus. Son of Pheres and Clymene, king of 
Pherse in Thessaly. Apollo, when banished 
from heaven, is said to have tended his flocks 
for nine years. 

Ado'nis, son of Cinyras and Myrrha was the fa- 
vorite of Venus. He was fond of hunting, 
and was often cautioned not to hunt wild 
beasts. This advice he slighted, and at last 
was mortally wounded by a wild boar. Venus 
changed him into the flower anemone. Pros- 
erpine is said to have restored him to life, on 
condition that he should spend six months of 
the year with her, and the rest of the year 
with Venus. This implies the alternate re- 
turn of summer and winter. Shakspeare, in 
his poem "Venus and Adonis," thus alludes 
to the changing of Adonis into a flower : — 

** By this the boy that by her side lay kill'd 
Was melted like a vapor from her sight, 


And in his blood, that on the ground lay spill'd, 

A purple flower sprung up, chequer'd with white, 
Resembling well his pale cheeks, and the blood 
Which in round drops upon their whiteness stood," 

Adras'tus, son of Talaus and Lysimache, was 
king of Argos. Polynices, being banished 
from Thebes by his brother Eteocles, fled to 
Argos, where he married Argia, daughter of 
Adrastus. The king assisted his son-in-law, 
and marched against Thebes with an army. 
He was defeated with great slaughter, and 
fled to Athens, where Theseus gave him as- 
sistance, and was victorious. Adrastus died 
from grief, occasioned by the death of his son 

Adria'nus. A famous emperor of Rome. He is 
represented as an active, learned, warlike, 
and austere general. He went to Britain, 
where he built a wall between the modern 
towns of Carlisle and Newcastle-on-Tyne, to 
protect the Britons from the incursions of the 

.^di'les. Roman magistrates, who had the 
charge of all buildings, baths, and aqueducts, 
and examined weights and measures. The 
office of an -^dile was honorable, and the 
primary step to a more distinguished position 
in the State. 

.^'geus. Kingof Athens, son of Pandion. Being 
desirous of having children, he went to con- 
sult the oracle, and on his return stopped at 
the court of Pittheus, king of Troezene, who 

t6 classical dictionary 

gave him his daughter ^thra in marriage. 
He directed her, if she had a son, to send him 
to Athens as soon as he could lift a stone under 
which he had concealed his sword, ^thra 
became mother of Theseus, whom she sent 
to Athens with his father's sword, ^geus 
being at that time living with Medea, the di- 
vorced wife of Jason. When Theseus came to 
Athens. Medea attempted to poison him, but 
he escaped ; and upon showing JEgeus the 
sword, discovered himself to be his son. 
When Theseus returned from Crete, after the 
death of the Minotaur, he omitted to hoist up 
white sails as a signal of success, and at sight 
of black sails, ^geus. concluding that hjs son 
was dead, threw himself into the sea, which, 
as some suppose, has since been called the 
^gean Sea. ^geus died b.c. 1235. 

.^'gis. The shield of Jupiter. He gave it to 
Pallas, who placed Medusa's head on it, which 
turned into stones all those who gazed at it. 

/Egy'ptuSj son of Belus, and brother to Danaus, 
gave his fifty sons in marriage to the fifty 
daughters of his brother. Danaus. who had 
established himself at Argos and was jealous 
of his brother, obliged all his daughters to 
murder their husbands on the first night of 
their nuptials. This was done, Hypermnestra 
alone sparing her husband Lynceus. ^gy- 
ptus himself was killed by his niece Polyxena. 

^lia'nus Claudius. A Roman sophist of Prse- 
neste in the reign of Adrian. He taught 


rhetoric at Rome. He wrote treatises on 
animals in seventeen books, and on various 
other subjects in fourteen books, ^lian died 
at the age of sixt5^ a.d. 140. 

iEne'as. A Trojan prince, son of Anchises and 
Venus. He married Creusa, the daughter of 
Priam, and they had a son named Ascanius. 
During the Trojan war ^neas behaved with 
great valor in defence of Troy. When the 
city was in flames he is said to have carried 
away his father Anchises on his shoulders, 
leading his son Ascanius by the hand, his 
wife following them. Subsequently he built 
a fleet of twenty ships, with which he set sail 
in quest of a settlement. He was driven on 
the coasts of Africa, and was kindly received 
by Dido, Queen of Carthage, who became 
enamored with him ; but he left Carthage by 
the order of the gods. He has been praised 
for his piety and his submission to the will of 
the gods; the term "Pius" is generally ap- 
pended to his name. 

.^ne'is. The ^neid, a grand poem by Virgil, 
the great merit of which is well known. The 
author has imitated the style of Homer, and 
is by some thought to equal him. 

./E'olus, the ruler of storms and winds, was the 
son of Hippotas. He reigned over ^olia. 
He was the inventor of sails, and a great as- 
tronomer, from which the poets have called 
him the god of wind. 

.£s'chines. An Athenian orator who lived about 


342 B.C., and distinguished himself by his 
rivalship with Demosthenes. 

iEs'chylus, a soldier and poet of Athens, son of 
Euphorion. He was in the Athenian army at 
the battles of Marathon, Salamis. and Plataea ; 
but his most solid fame rests on his writings. 
He wrote ninety tragedies, forty of which 
were rewarded with a public prize. He was 
killed by the fall of a tortoise, dropped from 
the beak of an eagle on his head, k.c. 456. 

iEscula'pius, son of Apollo and Coronis, or as 
some say of Apollo and Larissa, daughter of 
Phlegias, was the god of medicine. He mar- 
ried Epione, and they had two sons, famous 
for their skill in medicine. Machaon and Po- 
dalirus ; of their four daughters, Hygeia, god- 
dess of health, is the most celebrated. 

iE'son, son of Cretheus, was l)orn at the same 
birth as Pelias. He succeeded his father in 
the kingdom of lolchos, but was soon exiled 
by his brother. He married Alcimeda, by 
whom he had Jason, whose education he en- 
trusted to Chiron. ^Vhen Jason reached man- 
hood he demanded his father's kingdom from 
his uncle, who gave him evasive answers, and 
persuaded him to go in quest of the Golden 
Fleece. On his return Jason found his father 
very infirm, and at his request Medea drew 
the blood from ^son's veins and refilled them 
with the juice of certain herbs, which restored 
the old man to the vigor of youth, 

TEsopus. A Phrygian philosopher who, origin- 


ally a slave, procured his liberty by his ge- 
nius. He dedicated his fables to his patron 
Croesus. The fables which we have now 
under his name doubtless are a collection of 
fables and apologues of wits before and after 
the age of ^sop, conjointly with his own. 

Agamemnon, king of Mycensc and Argos, was 
brother to Menelaus, and son of Plisthenes, 
the son of Atreus. He married Clytemnestra, 
and Menelaus Helen, both daughters of Tyn- 
darus, king of Sparta. When Helen eloped 
with Paris, Agamemnon was elected com- 
mander-in-chief of the Grecian forces invad- 
ing Troy. 

Agesila'us. Of the family of the Proclidse, son 
of Archidamus, king of Sparta, whom he suc- 
ceeded. He made war against Artaxerxes, 
king of Persia, with success, but in the midst 
of his conquests he was called home to oppose 
the Athenians and Boeotians. He passed 
over in thirty days that tract of country which 
had taken up a whole year of Xerxes' expedi- 
tion. He defeated his enemies at Coronea, 
but sickness interfered with his conquests, 
and the Spartans were beaten in every en- 
gagement till he again appeared at their head. 
He died 362 years b.c. 

Agrip pa, M. Vipsanius. A celebrated Roman 
who obtained a victory over S. Pompey, and 
favored the cause of Augustus at the battles 
of Actium and Philippi, where he behaved 
with great valor. In his expeditions in Gaul 


and Germany he obtained several victories, 
but refused the honor of a triumph, and 
turned his attention to the embellishment of 
Rome and the raising of magnificent build- 
ings, among them the Pantheon. Augustus 
gave him his daughter Julia in marriage. He 
died universally lamented, at Rome, aged 
fifty-one, B.C. 12. 

Agrip'pa. A son of Aristobulus, grandson of the 
great Herod. He was popular with the Jews, 
and it is said that while they were flattering 
him with the appellation of god he was struck 
with death, a.d. 43. His son of the same 
name was with Titus at the siege of Jerusa- 
lem, and died a.d. 94. It was before him 
that St. Paul pleaded. There were a number 
of others of the same name, but of less celeb- 

A jax, son of Telamon and Periboea, or Eriboea, 
was one of the bravest of the Greeks in the 
Trojan war. After the death of Achilles, 
Ajax and Ulysses both claimed the arms of 
the dead hero, which were given to Ulysses, 
Some say that he was killed in battle by 
Paris, but others record that he was murdered 
by Ulysses. 

Alari'cus. A famous king of the Goths who plun- 
dered Rome in the reign of Honorius. He 
was greatly respected for his valor, and dur- 
ing his reign he kept the Roman empire in 
continual alarm. He died after a reign of 
twelve years, a.d. 410. He was buried in the 


bed of a river which had been turned from its 
course for the reception of his corpse, in order 
that it might be said that no one should tread 
on the earth where he reposed. The circum- 
stance is thus alluded to by one of our own 
poets : — 

" But ye the mountain stream shall turn, 
And lay its secret channel bare, 
And hollow, for your sovereign's urn, 
A resting-place for ever there; 

" Then bid its everlasting springs 
Flow back upon the king of kings; 
And never be the secret said 
Until the deep give up its dead." 

Albion, son of Neptune and Amphitrite, came 
into Britain, where he established a kingdom, 
and introduced astrology and the art of build- 
ing ships. Great Britain is called "Albion" 
after him. 

Alcae'us. A celebrated lyric poet of Mitylene in 
Lesbos, about 600 years before the Christian 
era. He fled from a battle, and the armor 
in which he left the field was hung up in the 
temple of Minerva as a monument of his dis- 
grace. He was enamoured of Sappho. Of 
his works only a few fragments remain. 

Alces'te or Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, married 
Admetus. She, with her sisters, put her 
father to death that he might be restored to 
youth and vigour by Medea, who had prom- 
ised to ettect this by her enchantments. She, 


however, refused to fulfil her promise, on 
which the sisters fled to Admetus, who mar- 
ried Alceste. 

Alcibi'ades. An Athenian general, famous for 
his enterprise, versatile genius, and natural 
foibles. He was a disciple of Socrates, whose 
lessons and example checked for a while his 
vicious propensities. In the Peloponnesian 
war he encouraged the Athenians to under- 
take an expedition against Syracuse. He 
died in his forty-sixth year. B.C. 404. 

Alcme'na. Daughter of Electrion, king of Argos. 
Her father promised her and his crown to 
Amphitryon if he would revenge the death of 
his sons who had been killed by the Tele- 
boans. In the absence of Amphitryon, Jupi- 
ter assumed his form and visited Alcmena, 
who, believing the god to be her lover, re- 
ceived him with joy. Amphitryon on his re- 
turn ascertained from the prophet Tiresias 
the deception which had been practiced. 
After the death of Amphitryon, Alcmena mar- 
ried Rhadamanthus. Hercules was the son 
of Jupiter and Alcmena. 

Alcy'one or Halcy'one, daughter of ^olus, mar- 
ried Ceyx, who was drowned as he was going 
to consult the oracle. The gods apprised 
Alcyone in a dream of her husband's fate, 
and when she found his body washed ashore 
she threw herself into the sea. and she and 
her husband were changed into birds. 

Alec to. One of the Furies. She is represented 


with her head covered with serpents, and 
breathing vengeance, war, and pestilence. 

Alexander, surnamed the Great, was son of 
Philip and Olympias. He was born b.c. 355, 
on the night on which the famous temple of 
Diana at Ephesus was burnt. This event, 
according to the magicians, was a prognostic 
of his future greatness, as well as the taming 
of Bucephalus, a horse which none of the 
king's attendants could manage. Philip, it 
is recorded, said, with tears in his eyes, that 
his son must seek another kingdom, as that 
of Macedonia would not be large enough for 
him. He built a town, which he called Alex- 
andria, on the Nile. His conquests were ex- 
tended to India, where he fought with Porus. 
a powerful king of the country, and after he 
had invaded Scythia. he retired to Babylon 
laden with spoils. His entry into the city 
was predicted by the magicians as to prove 
fatal to him. He died at Babylon in his 
thirty-second year, after a reign of twelve 
years and eight months of continual success, 
B.C. 323. There were a number of others of 
the same name, but of less celebrity. 

Althae'a, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, 
married CEneus, king of Calydon, by whom 
she had many children, among them being 
Meleager. When he was born the Parca; put 
a log of wood on the fire, saying, as long as 
it was preserved the life of the child would be 
prolonged. The mother took the wood froiij 


the flames and preserved it, but when Melea- 
ger killed his two uncles, Althaea, to revenge 
them, threw the log in the fire, and when it 
was burnt Meleager expired. Althaea then 
killed herself. 

Amaryl'lis. The name of a countrywoman in 
Virgil's Eclogues. Some commentators have 
supposed that the poet spoke of Rome under 
this fictitious name. 

Amaz'ones or Amazonides. A nation of famous 
women who lived near the river Thermodon 
in Cappadocia. All their lives were employed 
in wars and manly exercises. They founded 
an extensive empire in Asia Minor along the 
shores of the Euxine. 

Ambra'cia. A city of Epirus, the residence of 
King Pyrrhus. Augustus, after the battle of 
Actium, called it Nicopolis. Lord Byron thus 
alludes to it in the second canto of "Childe 

" Ambracia's gulf behold, where once was lost 
A world for woman, lovely, harmless thing ! 
In yonder rippling bay, their naval host 
Did many a Roman chief and Asian king 
To doubtful conflict, certain slaughter bring." 

Amphiara'us, son of Oicleus and Hypermnestra, 
was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, and 
accompanied the Argonauts in their expedi- 
tion. He was famous for his knowledge of 

Amphic tyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, 


reigned at Athens after Cranaus. Some say 
the deluge happened in his age. 

Amphic'tyon, the son of Helenus, who first es- 
tablished the celebrated Council of the Am- 
phictyons, composed of the wisest and most 
virtuous men of some cities of Greece. 

Amphi'on, son of Jupiter and Antiope. He cul- 
tivated poetry, and made such progress in 
music that he is said to have been the inven- 
tor of it, and to have built the walls of Thebes 
by the sound of his lyre. 

Amphitrite. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
who married Neptune. She is sometimes 
called Salatia. She was mother of Triton, a 
sea deity. 

Amphitryon. A Theban prince, son of Alcaeus 
and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo married 
Electryon, king of Mycenae, whose sons were 
killed in battle by the Teleboans. Electryon 
gave his daughter Alcmena to Amphitryon 
for avenging the death of his sons. 

Anachar'sis, a Scythian philosopher 592 years b. c. , 
who, on account of his wisdom, temperance, 
and knowledge, has been called one of the 
seven wise men. He has rendered himself 
famous among the Ancients by his writings, 
his poems on war, the laws of the Scythians, 

Anac'reon. A famous lyric poet of Teos, in 
Ionia, favored by Polycrates and Hippar- 
chus, son of Philostratus He was of intem- 
perate habits and fond of pleasure. Some of 


his odes are extant, and the elegance of his 
poetry has been the admiration of ever}' age 
and country. He lived to the age of eighty- 
five, and after a life of pleasure was choked 
with a grape-stone. He flourished b.c. 532. 
The Odes have been translated into English 
by Moore, Cowley, and others. 

Anadyom'ene. A famous painting by Apelles of 
Venus rising from the sea. 

Anaxag oras. A Clazomenian philosopher, who 
disregarded wealth and honors to indulge 
his fondness for meditation and philosophy. 
He applied himself to astronomy, and ob- 
tained a knowledge of eclipses. He used to 
say he preferred a grain of wisdom to heaps 
of gold. He ^yas accused of impiety and 
condemned to die, but he ridiculed the sen- 
tence, which he said had already been pro- 
nounced on him by nature. He died at the 
age of seventy-two. li.c. 42S. 

Anaxar'ete. A girl of Salamis, who so arro- 
gantly rejected the addresses of Iphis. a youth 
of ignoble birth, that he hanged himself at 
her door. .She saw the spectacle without 
emotion, and was changed into stone. Mr. 
Wiffen makes allusion to the circumstance in 
his translation of Garcilasso de la Vega: 

•' Klse tremble at the fate forlorn 
Of Anaxarete, who spurn'd 

The weeping Iphis from her gate; 

Who, scoffing long, relenting late, 
Was to a statue turn'd." 


Anchi'ses. A son of Capys and Themis. He 
was so beautiful that Venus came down from 
heaven on Mount Ida to enjoy his company, 
^neas was the son of Anchises and Venus, 
and was entrusted to the care of Chiron the 
Centaur. When Troy was taken, Anchises 
had become so infirm that ^neas had to carry 
him through the flames upon his shoulders, 
and thus saved his life. 

Andromache. Daughter of Eetion, king of 
Thebes. She married Hector, son of Priam, 
and was the mother of Astyanax. Her part- 
ing with Hector, who was going to battle, is 
described in the Iliad, and has been deemed 
one of the most beautiful passages in that 
great work. Pope's translation of the Iliad 
(book 6) describes with great pathos and 
beauty the parting of Hector from his wife 
and child. The passage is too long for quo- 
tation, but this quatrain from it shows the 
style : — 

" Thus having spoke, th' illustrious chief of Troy 
Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy; 
The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, 
Scared at the dazzling helm and nodding crest."' 

Andromeda. A daughter of Cepheus, king of 
Ethiopia, and Cassiope. She was promised 
in marriage to Phineus when Neptune drowned 
the kingdom and sent a sea monster to ravage 
the country, because Cassiope had boasted 

. . that she was fairer than Juno and the Nerei- 
des. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was con- 


suited, but nothing could stop the resentment 
of Neptune except the exposure of Andromeda 
to the sea monster. She was accordingly tied 
to a rock, but at the moment that the monster 
was about to devour her, Perseus, returning 
• from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, 
and was captivated with her beauty. He 
changed the monster into a rock by showing 
Medusa's head, and released Andromeda and 
married her. 
Anthropophagi. A people of Scythia who fed 
on human flesh. They lived near the country 
of the Messagetie. Shakspeare makes Othello, 
in his speech to the Senate, allude to the 
Anthropophagi thus :— 

" The cannibals that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders." 

Antigone. A daughter of CEdipus, king of 
Thebes. She buried, by night, her brother 
Polynices, against the orders of Creon, who 
ordered her to be buried alive. She, how- 
ever, killed herself on hearing of the sentence. 
The death of Antigone is the subject of one 
of the finest tragedies of Sophocles. 

Antig'onus. One of Alexander's generals, who, 
on the division of the provinces after the 
king's death, received Pamphylia, Lycia, and 
Phrygia. Eventually his power became so 
great that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and 
Lysimachus combined to destroy him. He 


gained many victories over them, but at last 
was killed in battle at the age of eighty, b.c. 
301. There were others of the same name, 
but much less conspicuous. 

Antin'ous. A youth of Bithynia of whom the 
emperor Adrian was so extremely fond that, 
at his death, he erected a temple to him, and 
wished it to be believed that he had been 
changed into a constellation. 

Anti'ochus, surnamed Soter, was son of Seleucus 
and king of Syria. He made a treaty of alli- 
ance with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of 
Egypt. He wedded his stepmother Stratonice. 
He was succeeded by his son Antiochus II. , 
who put an end to the war which had begun 
with Ptolemy, and married his daughter Ber- 
enice, but being already married to Laodice, 
she, in revenge, poisoned him. Antiochus, 
the third of that name, surnamed the Great, 
was king of Syria, and reigned thirty-six 
years. He was defeated by Ptolemy Philo- 
pater at Raphia. He conquered the greater 
part of Greece, and Hannibal incited him to 
enter on a crusade against Rome, He was 
killed 187 years before the Christian era. An- 
tiochus Epiphanes, the fourth of the name, 
was king of Syria after his brother Seleucus. 
He behaved with cruelty to the Jews. He 
reigned eleven years, and died unregretted. 
There were many others of the same name of 
less note. 

Anti'ope, daughter of Nycteus, king of Thebes, 


and" Polyxo, was beloved by Jupiter.' "Am* 
phion and Tethus were her offspring. 

Antip'ater, son of lolaus, was a soldier under 
King Philip, and raised to the rank of a 
general under Alexander the Great. When 
Alexander went to invade Asia, he left Antip- 
ater supreme governor of Macedonia. He 
has been suspected of giving poison to Alex- 
ander to advance himself in power. 

Antoninus, surnamed Pius, was adopted by the 
Emperor Adrian, whom he succeeded. He 
was remarkable for all the virtues forming a 
perfect statesman, philosopher, and king. He 
treated his subjects with affability and hu- 
manity, and listened with patience to every 
complaint brought before him. He died in 
his seventy-fifth year, after a reign of twenty- 
three years, A. D. i6o. 

Anto'nius, Marcus. Mark Antony, the triumvir, 
distinguished himself by his ambitious views. 
When Julius Cassar was killed in the senate 
house, Antony delivered an oration over his 
body, the eloquence of which is recorded in 
Shakspeare's tragedy of Julius Caesar. An- 
tony had married Fulvia, whom he repudi- 
ated to marry Octavia, the sister of Augustus. 
He fought by the side of Augustus at the bat- 
tle of Philippi, against the murderers of Julius 
Caesar. Subsequently he became enamored 
with Cleopatra, the renowned queen of Egypt, 
and repudiated Octavia to marry her. He 
was utterly defeated at the battle of Actiura, 


f : • and stabbed himself. He died m -the fifty - 
sixth year of his age, r.. < . 30. Shakspeare, 
in his noble tragedy— Antony and Cleopatra, 
—makes Antony appeal to his attendant, 
Eros, to slay him, who refuses, when Antony 
falls on his own sword. The reader is re- 
ferred to the fourth act of the play, where 
Antony, defeated and heart-broken, addresses 
his attendant : 

" Unarm, Eros; the long day's task is done, 
And we must sleep." 

Anto nius, Ju lius,son of the famous triumvir An- 
tony, by Fulvia, was consul with Paulus 
Fabius Maximus. He was surnamed Afri- 
canus, and put to death by order of Augustus, 
but some say he killed himself. 

Anto'nius, M. Gni pho. A poet of Gaul who 
taught rhetoric at Rome. Cicero and other 
illustrious men frequented his school. There 
were a number of others of the same name, 
but of less repute. 

Apelles. A celebrated painter of Cos, or, as 
others say, of Ephesus ; son of Pithius. He 
lived in the age of Alexander the Great, who 
forbade any one but Apelles to paint his por- 
trait. He was so absorbed in his profession 
that he never allowed a day to pass without 
employing himself at his art ; hence the 
proverb of Nulla dies sine lined. His most 
perfect picture was Venus Anadyomene, 
which was not quite finished when he died. 


He painted a picture in which a horse was a 
prominent feature, and so correctly was it 
delineated that a horse passing by it neighed, 
supposing it to be alive. He was ordered by 
Alexander to paint a portrait of one of 
his favorites — Campaspe. Apelles became 
enamored with her and married her. He 
only put his name to three of his pictures — a 
sleeping Venus, Venus Anadyomene, and an 
Alexander. The proverb, Ne siitor ultra 
crepidaifi, has been used in reference to him 
by some writers. 

Aphrodite. The Grecian name for Venus, from 
the Greek word a<^poQ, froth, because Venus is 
said to have been born from the froth of the 

Apic'ius. A famous gourmand in Rome. There 
were three of this name, all noted for their 
voracious appetites. 

A'pis. One of the ancient kings of Peloponnesus, 
son of Phoroneus and Laodice. Some say that 
Apollo was his father, and that he was king 
of Argos. whilst others called him king of 
Sicyon, and fix the time of his reign above 
200 years earlier. Varro and others have sup- 
posed that Apis went to Egypt with a colon}'- 
of Greeks, and that he civilized the inhabitants 
and polished their manners, for which they 
made him a god after death, and paid divine 
honors to him under the name of Serapis. 

Apis. A god of the Egyptians, worshiped 
under the form of an ox. Some say that Isis 


and Osiris are the deities worshiped under 
this name, because they taught the Egyptians 

Apollo. Son of Jupiter and Latona; called also 
Phcebus. He was the god of the fine arts 
and the reputed originator of music, poetry, 
and eloquence. He had received from Jupiter 
the power of knowing futurity, and his oracles 
were in repute everywhere. As soon as he 
was born he destroyed with his arrows the 
serpent Python, which Juno had sent to per- 
secute Latona ; hence he was called Pythius. 
He was not the inventor of the lyre, as some 
have supposed, but it was given to him by 
Mercury, who received in return the famous 
, Caduceus. He received the surnames of 
Phoebus, Delius. Cynthius, Paean, Delphicus, 
etc. He is in sculpture generally represented 
as a handsome young man with a bow in his 
hand, from which an arrow has just been dis- 

Appianus. An historian of Alexandria, who 
flourished ad. 123, His Universal History, 
which consisted of twenty-four books, was a 
history of all the nations conquered by the 

Ap'pius Clau'dius. A decemvir who obtained his 
power by force and oppression. He grossly 
insulted Virginia, whom her father killed to 
save her from the power of the tyrant. 

Arcadia. A district of Peloponnesus, which has 
been much extolled by the poets. It was 


famous for its mountains. The inhabitants 
were for the most part shepherds, who lived 
upon acorns. They were skillful warriors and 
able musicians. Pan lived chiefly among 

Archilochus. A poet of Paros, who wr-ote ele- 
gies, satires, odes, and epigrams. He lived 
B.C. 68 5. 

Archimedes. A famous geometrician of Syra- 
cuse who invented a machine of glass that 
represented the motion of the heavenly bodies. 
When Marcellus, the Roman consul, besieged 
Syracuse, Archimedes constructed machines 
which suddenly raised into the air the ships 
of the enemy, which then fell into the sea and 
were sunk. He also set fire to the ships with 
burning-glasses. When the enemy were in 
possession of the town, a soldier, not know- 
ing who he was, killed him. B.C. 212. 

Arethu'sa, a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, 
and one of Diana's attendants. As she re- 
turned one day from hunting she bathed in 
the Alpheus stream. The god of the river 
was enamored of her, and pursued her over 
the mountains, till Arethusa, ready to sink 
from fatigue, implored Diana to change her 
into a fountain, which the goddess did. 

Ar'go. The name of the famous ship which car- 
ried Jason and his companions to Colchis, 
when they went to recover the Golden Fleece. 

Argonau'tae. The Argonauts, those ancient he- 
roes who went with Jason in the Argo to 


Colchis to recover the Golden Fleece, about 
seventy-nine years before the capture of Troy, 
The number of the Argonauts is not exactly 

Ar'gus. A son of Arestor, whence he is some- 
times called Arestorides. He had a hundred 
eyes, of which only two were asleep at one 
time. Juno set him to watch lo. whom 
Jupiter had changed into a heifer, but Mer- 
cury, by order of Jupiter, slew him. by lulling 
all his eyes to sleep with the notes of the lyre. 
Juno put the eyes of Argus in the tail of the 
peacock, a bird sacred to her. 

Ariad ne, daughter of Minos, second king of 
Crete, and Pasiphse. fell in love with Theseus, 
who was shut up in the labyrinth to be de- 
voured by the Minotaur. She gave Theseus 
a clue of thread by which he extricated him- 
self from the windings of the labyrinth. After 
he had conquered the Minotaur he married 
her, but after a time forsook her. On this, 
according to some authorities, she hanged 
herself. According to other waiters, after 
being abandoned by Theseus. Bacchus loved 
her, and gave her a crown of seven stars, 
which were made a constellation. 

Ari'on. A famous lyric poet and musician, son 
of Cyclos of Methymna in Lesbos. He went 
into Italy with Periander. tyrant of Corinth, 
where he gained much wealth by his profes- 
sion. Afterward he wished to revisit the 
place of his nativity, and he embarked in a 


ship, the sailors of which resolved to kill him 
for the riches he had with him. Arion en- 
treated them to listen to his music, and as 
soon as he had finished playing he threw him- 
self into the sea. A number of dolphins had 
been attracted by the sweetness of his music, 
and it is said that one of them carried him 
safely on its back to T^narus. whence he went 
to the court of Periander, who ordered all the 
sailors to be crucified. 

Aristae'us. Son of Apollo and Cyrene, famous 
for his fondness for hunting. He married 
Autonoe, the daughter of Cadmus, Actaeon 
being their son. He was after death wor- 
shiped as a demigod. 

Aristar chus. A celebrated grammarian of 
Samos, disciple of Aristophanes. He lived 
the greatest part of his life at Alexandria. 
.He wrote about 800 commentaries on different 
authors. He died in his seventy-second year, 
B.C. 157- 

Aristi'des. A celebrated Athenian, son of Lysi- 
machus, in the age of Themistocles, whose 
great temperance and virtue procured for him 
the name of the "Just." He was rival to 
Themistocles, by whose influence he was ban- 
ished for ten years, i?.c. 484. He was at the 
battle of Salamis, and was appointed to be 
chief commander with Pausanias against 
Mardonius, whom they defeated at Plataia. 

Aristip'pus, the elder, a philosopher of Cyrene, a 
disciple of Socrates, and founder of the Cy- 
renaic sect. 


Aristogi'ton and Harmo'dius. Two celebrated 
friends of Athens, who, by their joint efforts, 
delivered their country from the tyranny of 
the Pisistratidse, B.C. 510. 

Aristophanes. A celebrated comic poet of 
Athens, son of Philip of Rhodes. He wrote 
fifty-four comedies, of which eleven have 
come down to us. He lived b.c. 434. and 
lashed the vices of the age with a masterly 

Aristof eles. A famous philosopher, son of Ni- 
comachus. born at Stagira. He went to 
Athens to hear Plato's lectures, where he 
soon signalized himself by his genius. He 
has been called by Plato the philosopher of 
truth, and Cicero complimented him for his 
eloquence, fecundity of thought, and univer- 
sal knowledge. He died in his sixty-third 
year. b.c. 322. As he expired he is said to 
have exclaimed : Causa caiisarian miserere 
mei, which sentence has since become famous, 
and is by some attributed to Cicero. The 
term Stagirite has been applied to Aristotle 
from the name of his birthplace. Pope, in 
his "Essay on Criticism," thus alludes to him 
under this name : — 

'* And rules as strict his labor'd work confine, 
As if the Stagirite o'erlooked each line." 

Artaxerx'es the First succeeded to the kingdom 
of Persia after Xerxes. He made war against 
the Bactrians, and reconquered Egypt, which 


had revolted. He was remarkable for his 
equity and moderation. 

Artaxerx'es the Second. King of Persia, sur- 
named Mnemon. His brother Cyrus endeav- 
ored to make himself king in his place, and 
marched against his brother at the head of 
100,000 Barbarians and 13,000 Greeks. He 
was opposed by Artaxerxes with a large army, 
and a bloody battle was fought at Cunaxa, 
in which Cyrus was killed and his forces 

Artemis. The Greek name of Diana. Her festi- 
vals, called Artemesia, were celebrated in 
several parts of Greece, particularly at Delphi. 

Asca'nius, son of ^neas and Creusa, was saved 
from the flames of Troy by his father, whom 
he accompanied in his voyage to Italy. He 
was afterward called lulus. 

Aspa'sia. Daughter of Axiochus, born at Meli- 
tus. She came to Athens, where she taught 
eloquence. Socrates was one of her scholars. 
She so captivated Pericles by her accomplish- 
ments that he made her his wife. The con- 
duct of Pericles and Aspasia greatly corrupted 
the morals of the Athenians, and caused 
much dissipation in the State. 

Aspa'sia. A daughter of Hermotimus of Phocaea, 
famous for her personal beauty. She was 
priestess of the sun, and became mistress to 

Astar'te. A powerful divinity of Syria, the same 
as the Venus of the Greeks. She had a 


famous temple at Hierapolis in Syria, which 
was attended by 300 priests, 

Astrae'a. A daughter ©f Astrseus, king of Arca- 
dia, or, according to others, daughter of Titan 
and Aurora. Some make her daughter of 
Jupiter and Themis. She was called Jus-tice, 
of which virtue she was the goddess. 

Asty'anax. A son of Hector and Andromache. 
He was very j^oung when the Greeks besieged 
Troy, and when the city was taken his mother 
saved him in her arms from the flames. Ac- 
cording to Euripides he was killed by Men- 

Atalan'ta. Daughter of Schoeneus, king of 
Scyros. According to some she was the 
daughter of Jasus, or Jasius, and Clymene, 
but others say that Menalion was her father. 
She determined to live in c-elibacy, but her 
beauty gained her many admirers, and to free 
herself from their importunities she proposed 
to run a race with them. As she was almost in- 
vincible in running, her suitors, who entered 
the lists against her, were defeated, till Hip- 
pomenes, the son of Macareus, proposed him- 
self as an admirer. Venus gave him three 
golden apples from the garden of the Hesper- 
ides, and with these cDucealed about him he 
entered the lists to race against Atalanta. As 
the race proceeded he dropped the apples, 
which she stopped to pick up, thus ena ng 
Hippomenes to arrive first at the goal, and 
obtain her in marriage. 


A'te. Daughter of Jupiter, and goddess of all 
evil. She raised such discord amongst the 
gods that Jupiter banished her from heaven, 
and sent her to dwell on earth, where she 
incited mankind to evil thoughts and actions. 

Athana'sius. A bishop of Alexandria, celebrated 
for his determined opposition to Arius and his 
doctrines. He died a.d. 373, after filling the 
archiepiscopal chair for forty-seven years. 
The famous creed which is named after him 
is no longer supposed to have been written by 
him, and its authorship remains in doubt. 

Atlas. One of the Titans, son of lapetus and 
Clymene. He married Pleione, daughter of 
Oceanus (or of Hesperis according to some 
writers). He had seven daughters, who were 
called the Atlantides. 

A'treus. A son of Pelops and Hippodamia, was 
king of Mycenae. His brother Chrysippus 
was of disgraceful birth, and Hippodamia 
wished to get rid of him, and urged Atreus 
and another of her sons, Thyestes, to murder 
him, which, on their refusal, she did herself. 
Atreus retired to the court of Eurystheus, 
king of Argos, and succeeded to his throne. 

At ticus, T. Pomponius. A celebrated Roman 
knight, to whom Cicero wrote a number of 
letters, containing the general history of the 
age. He retired to Athens, where he endeared 
himself to the citizens, who erected statues to 
him in commemoration of his virtues. He 
died at the age of seventy-seven, B.C. 32. 


At'tila. A celebrated king of the Huns, who in- 
vaded the Roman empire in the reign of Va- 
lentinian, with an army of half a million of 
men. He laid waste the provinces, and 
marched on Rome, but retreated on being 
paid a large sum of money. He called him- 
self the "Scourge of God," and died a.d, 453, 
of an effusion of blood, on the night of his 

Augustus, Octavia'nus Caesar, emperor of 
Rome, was son of Octavius, a senator, and 
Accia, sister to Julius Csesar. He was asso- 
ciated in the triumvirate with Antony and 
Lepidus, and defeated the armies of Brutus 
and Cassius at Philippi. Octavia, the sister 
of Augustus, married Antony after the death 
of his wife Fulvia. Octavia, however, was 
slighted for the charms of Cleopatra, which 
incensed Augustus, who took up arms to 
avenge the wrongs of his sister, and at the 
great battle of Actium (b.c. 31), the forces of 
Antony and Cleopatra suffered a disastrous 

Aurelia'nus, emperor of Rome, was austere and 
cruel in the execution of the laws and in his 
treatment of his soldiers. He was famous for 
his military character, and his expedition 
against Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, gained 
him great honors. It is said that in his vari- 
ous battles he killed 800 men with his own 
hand. He was assassinated near Byzantium, 
A.D. 275. 


Aurel'lius, M. Antoninus, surnamed "the philos- 
opher," possessed all the virtues which should 
adorn the character of a prince. He raised to 
the imperial dignity his brother L. Verus, 
whose dissipation and voluptuousness were as 
conspicuous as the moderation of the philos- 
opher. During their reign the Quadi, Par- 
thians, and Marcomanni were defeated. 
Verus died of apoplexy, and Antoninus sur- 
vived him eight years, dying in his sixty -first 
year, after a reign of nineteen years and ten 

Auro'ra. A goddess, daughter of Hyperion and 
Thia or Thea. She is generally represented 
by the poets as sitting in a chariot and open- 
ing with her fingers the gates of the east, 
pouring dew on the earth, and making the 
flowers grow. The Greeks call her Eos. 

Bacchus was son of Jupiter and Semele, the 
daughter of Cadmus. He was the god of 
wine, and is generally represented crowned 
with vine leaves. He is said to have married 
Ariadne after she had been forsaken by The- 

Belisa'rius. A celebrated general who, in the 
reign of Justinian, emperor of Constantinople, 
renewed the victories which had rendered the 
first Romans so distinguished. He died, 
after a life of glory, suffering from royal 
ingratitude, 565 years before the Christian 


Beller'ophon, son of Glaucus, king of Ephyre, 
and Eurymede, was at first called Hipponous. 
He was sent by lobates, king of Lycia, to 
conquer the monster Chimsera. Minerva as- 
sisted him in the expedition, and by the aid 
of the winged horse Pegasus he conquered 
the monster and returned victorious. After 
sending him on other dangerous adventures, 
lobates gave him his daughter in marriage 
and made him successor to his throne. 

Bello'na, goddess of war, was daughter of Phorcys 
and Ceto ; called by the Greeks Enyo, and is 
often confounded with Minerva. She pre- 
pared the chariot of Mars when he was going 
to war, and appeared in battles armed with a 
whip to animate the combatants, and holding 
a torch. 

Be'lus, one of the most ancient kings of Babylon, 
about 1800 years before the age of Semiramis, 
was made a god after death, and was wor- 
shiped by the Assyrians and Babylonians. 
He was supposed to be the son of the Osiris 
of the Egyptians. The temple of Belus was 
the most ancient and magnificent in the 
world, and was said to have been originally 
the tower of Babel. 

Berenice. A daughter of Philadelphus, who 
married Antiochus, king of Syria, after he 
had divorced his former wife Laodice. 

Bereni'ce. The mother of Agrippa, whose name 
occurs in the history of the Jews as daughter- 
in-law of Herod the Great. A number of 



others of minor celebrity were known by the 
same name, 
Bi'on. A philosopher of Scythia who rendered 
himself famous for his knowledge of poetry, 
music, and philosophy. Another of the same 
name was a Greek poet of Smyrna who wrote 
pastorals. He was a friend of Moschus, who 
says that he died by poison about 300 years 


Boadice'a. A famous British queen who rebelled 
against the Romans and was defeated, on 
which she poisoned herself. Her cruel treat- 
ment by the Romans is the subject of an ode 
by Cowper. 

Bo'reas. The name of the north wind blowing 
from the Hyperborean mountains. According 
to the poets, he was son of Astrseus and 
Aurora. He was passionately fond of Hya- 

Bren'nus, A general of the Galli Senones, who 
entered Italy, defeated the Romans, and 
marched into the city. The Romans fled into 
the Capitol, and left the city in possession of 
the enemy. The Gauls climbed the Tarpeian 
rock in the night, and would have taken the 
Capitol had not the Romans been awakened 
by the cackling of some geese, on which they 
roused themselves and repelled the enemy. 

Bri'a'reus. A famous giant, son of Ccelus and 
Terra. He had a hundred hands and fifty 
heads, and was called by men by the name of 


Brutus, L. Junius. Son of M. Junius and Tar- 
quinia. When Lucretia killed herself, b c. 
509, in consequence of the brutality of Tar- 
quin, Brutus snatched the dagger from the 
wound and swore upon the reeking blade im- 
mortal hatred to the royal family, and made 
the people swear they would submit no longer 
to the kingly authority. His sons conspired 
to restore the Tarquins, and were tried and 
condemned before their father, who himself 
attended their execution. Mr. John Howard 
Payne, the American dramatist, has written 
a tragedy, of which Brutus is the hero. 

Bru'tus, Mar cus Ju nius, father of Caesar's mur- 
derer, followed the part)' of Marius, and was 
conquered by Pompey, by whose orders he 
was put to death. 

Bru'tus, Mar cus Ju nius, the destroyer of Caesar, 
conspired, with many of the most illustrious. 
citizens of Rome, against Caesar, and stabbed 
him in Pompey 's Basilica. The tumult fol- 
lowing the murder was great, but the con- 
spirators fled to the Capitol, and by proclaim- 
ing freedom and liberty to the populace, for 
the time established tranquillity. Antony, 
however, soon obtained the popular ear, and 
the murderers were obliged to leave Rome, 
Brutus retired into Greece, where he gained 
many friends. He was soon pursued by An- 
tony, who was accompanied by the young 
Octavius. The famous battle of Philippi fol- 
lowed, in which Brutus and his friend Cassius. 


who commanded the left wing of the army, 
were totally defeated. Brutus fell on his own 
sword, B.C. 42, and was honored with a mag- 
nificent funeral by Antony. Plutarch relates 
that Caesar's ghost appeared to Brutus in his 
tent before the battle of Philippi warning him 
of his approaching fall. Shakspeare, in his 
tragedy of Julius Caesar, makes Antony speak 
of Brutus as " the noblest Roman of them all, " 
adding, in reference to his character: — 

" His life was gentle; and the elements 
So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up, 
And say to all the world, 'This was a man.' " 

Bucephalus. A horse of Alexander's, so fre- 
quently named by writers that the term has 
become proverbial. Alexander was the only 
person that could mount him, and he always 
knelt down for his master to bestride him. 

Ca'cus, a famous robber, son of Vulcan and 
Medusa, represented as a three-headed mon- 
ster vomiting flames. He resided in Italy, 
and the avenues of his cave were covered 
with human bones. When Hercules returned 
from the conquest of Geryon, Cacus stole 
some of his cows, which Hercules discovering, 
he strangled Cacus. 

Cadmus; son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and 
Telephassa, or Agriope, was ordered by his 
father to go in quest of his sister Europa, 
whom Jupiter had carried away. His search 
proving fruitless, he consulted the oracle of 


Apollo, and was told to build a city where he 
saw a heifer stop in the grass, and call the 
country around Bceotia. He found the heifer, 
as indicated by the oracle. Requiring water, 
he sent his companions to fetch some from a 
neighboring grove. The water was guarded 
by a dragon, who devoured those who were 
sent for it, and Cadmus, tired of waiting, 
went himself to the place. He attacked the 
dragon and killed it, sowing its teeth in the 
ground, on which a number of armed men 
rose out of the earth. Cadmus threw a stone 
among them, and they at once began fight- 
ing, and all were killed except five, who as- 
sisted him in building the city. Cadmus in- 
troduced the use of letters in Greece— the 
alphabet, as introduced by him, consisting of 
sixteen letters. 
Cadu'ceus. A rod entwined at one end with two 
serpents. It was the attribute of Mercury, 
and was given to him by Apollo in exchange 
for the lyre. 
Cae'sar. A surname given to the Julian family 
in Rome. This name, after it had been dig- 
nified in the person of Julius Caesar and his 
successors, was given to the apparent heir of 
the empire in the age of the Roman emperors. 
The first twelve emperors were distinguished 
by the name of Caesar. They reigned in this 
order — Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, 
Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitel- 
lius, Vespasian. Titus, and Domitian. Sue- 


tonius has written an exhaustive history of 
the Caesars. C. Julius Csesar, the first em- 
peror of Rome, was son of L. Caesar and Au- 
relia, the daughter of Cotta. He was de- 
scended, according to some accounts, from 
lulus, the son of ^neas. His eloquence pro- 
cured him friends at Rome, and the generous 
manner in which he lived equally served to 
promote his interest. He was appointed for 
five years over the Gauls. Here he enlarged 
the boundaries of the Roman empire by con- 
quest, and invaded Britain, which till then 
was unknown to the Romans. The corrupt 
state of the Roman senate, and the ambition 
of Caesar and Pompe}', caused a civil war. 
Neither of these celebrated Romans would 
endure a superior, and the smallest matters 
were grounds enough for unsheathing the 
sword. By the influence of Pompey a decree 
was passed to strip Caesar of his power. An- 
tony, as tribune, opposed this, and went to 
Caesar's camp with the news. On this Caesar 
crossed the Rubicon, which was the boundary 
of his province. The passage of the Rubicon 
was a declaration of war, and Caesar entered 
Italy with his army. Upon this Pompey left 
Rome and retired to Dyrrachium, and Caesar 
shortly afterwards entered Rome. He then 
went to Spain, where he conquered the parti- 
sans of Pompey, and on his return to Rome 
was declared dictator, and soon afterward 
consul. The two hostile generals met in the 


plains of Pharsalia, and a great battle ensued, 
B.C. 48. Pompey was defeated and fled to 
Egypt, where he was slain. At length Caesar's 
glory came to an end. Enemies had sprung 
up around him, and a conspiracy, consisting 
of many influential Romans, was formed 
against him. Conspicuous among the con- 
spirators was Brutus, his most intimate friend, 
who, with others, assassinated him in the 
senate house in the ides of March, b.c. 44, in 
the fifty-sixth year of his age. He wrote his 
Commentaries on the Gallic wars when the 
battles were fought. This work is admired 
for its elegance and purity of style. It was 
after his conquest over Pharnaces, king of 
Pontus, that he made use of the words, which 
have since become proverbial, vent, vidz, vici, 
illustrative of the activity of his operations. 
Shakspeare's tragedy of Julius Caesar, in the 
third act of which he is assassinated, uttering 
as his last words, "£"/ iu Brute f Then fall 
Caesar" — is devoted to the conspiracy and its 
results, ending with defeat and death of 
Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. 
Caligula, a Roman emperor, was son of Ger- 
manicus by Agrippina. He was proud, wan- 
ton, and cruel. He was pleased when disas- 
ters befel his subjects, and often expressed a 
wish that the Romans had but one head that 
he might have the pleasure of striking it off. 
He had a favorite horse made consul and 
adorned it with the most valuable trappings 


and ornaments. The tyrant was murdered. 
A.D. 41, in his twenty-ninth year, after a reign 
of three years and ten months. 

Calli'ope. One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne, who presided over eloquence 
and heroic poetry. 

Cal'ydon. A city of ^tolia. where (Eneus, the 
father of Meleager, reigned. During the 
reign of CEneus Diana sent a wild boar to 
ravage the country on account of the neglect 
which had been shown of her divinity by the 
king. All the princes of the age assembled 
to hunt the Calydonian boar. Meleager killed 
the animal, and gave the head to Atalanta, of 
whom he was enamored. 

Calypso. One of the Oceanides, or one of the 
daughters of Atlas according to some writers. 
When Ulysses was shipwrecked on her coasts 
she received him with hospitality, and offered 
him immortality if he would remain with her 
as a husband, which he refused to do, and 
after seven years' delay he was permitted to 
depart from the island where Calypso reigned. 

Camby'ses, king of Persia, was the son of Cyrus 
the Great. He conquered Egypt, and was so 
disgusted at the superstition of the Egyptians 
that he killed their god Apis and plundered 
their temples. 

Camil'lus, L. Fu rius. A celebrated Roman, 
called a second Romulus from the services he 
rendered his country. He was banished for 
distributing the spoils he had obtained at 


Veii. During his exile Rome was besieged 
by the Gauls under Brennus. The besieged 
Romans then elected him dictator, and he 
went to the relief of his country, which he de- 
livered after it had been some time occupied 
by the enemy. He died B.C. 365. 

Campus Mar tius. A large plain without the 
walls of Rome, where the Roman youth 
were instructed in athletic exercises and learnt 
to throw the discus, hurl the javelin, etc. 

Can'nae. A village of Apuleia, where Hannibal 
defeated the Roman consuls ^mylius and 
Varro. ];.c. 216. 

Capitoli num. A celebrated temple and citadel 
at Rome on the Tarpeian rock. 

Caracalla, son of the emperor Septimius Severus, 
was notorious for his cruelties. He killed his 
brother Geta in his mother's arms, and at- 
tempted to destroy the writings of Aristotle. 
After a life made odious by his vices he was 
assassinated, a.d. 217, in the forty -third year 
of his age. 

Carac tacus. A king of the Britons, who was con- 
quered by the Romans and taken prisoner to 

Carthago. Carthage, a celebrated city of Africa, 
the rival of Rome, and for a long period the 
capital of the country, and mistress of Spain, 
Sicily, and Sardinia. The time of its founda- 
tion is unknown, but it seems to be agreed 
that it was built by Dido about 86g years be- 
fore the Christian era, or, according to some 


writers, 72 or 73 years before the foundation 
of Rome. It had reached its highest glory in 
the days of Hamilcar and Hannibal. 

Cassan'der, son of Antipater, made himself mas- 
ter of Macedonia after his father's death, 
where he reigned for eighteen years. 

Cassan dra, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, was 
passionately loved by Apollo, who promised 
to grant her whatever she might require, and 
she obtained from him the power of seeing 
into futurity. Some say she received the gift 
of prophecy, with her brother Helenus, by 
being placed when young one night in the 
temple of Apollo, where serpents were found 
wreathed round their bodies and licking their 
ears, which gave them a knowledge of futur- 
ity. She was allotted to Agamemnon in the 
division of the spoils of Troy, and was slain 
by Clytemnestra, Agamemnon's wife. 

Cas'sius, C. A celebrated Roman who became 
famous by being first quaestor to Crassus in 
his expedition against Parthia. He married 
Junia, the sister of Brutus, and joined Brutus 
in the conspiracy formed to assassinate Csesar, 
after which he returned to Philippi with 
Brutus, and commanded one wing of the 
army in the famous battle fought there. On 
the defeat of his forces he ordered one of his 
freedmen to kill him, and he perished by the 
sword which had inflicted a wound on Cajsar. 
He was called by Brutus "the last of all the 


Castalius Fons, or Casta lia. A fountain of 
Parnassus sacred to the Muses. 

Castor and Pollux were twin brothers, sons of 
Jupiter and Leda. Mercury carried them to 
Pallena, where they were educated. As soon 
as they arrived at manhood they embarked 
with Jason in quest of the Golden Fleece. In 
this expedition they evinced great courage. 
Pollux defeated and slew Amycus in the com- 
bat of the Cestus, and was afterward consid- 
ered to be the god and patron of boxing and 
wrestling. Castor distinguished himself in 
the management of horses. 

Catili na, L. Ser gius, a celebrated Roman, de 
scended from a noble family. When he had 
squandered his fortune he secretly meditated 
the ruin of his country, and conspired with 
many Romans as dissolute as himself to extir- 
pate the senate, plunder the treasures, and 
set Rome on fire. This plot, known as the 
Catiline conspiracy, was unsuccessful. The 
history of it is written by Sallust. Catiline 
was killed in battle u.c. 63. 

Ca'to, Marcus, was great-grandson of the censor 
Cato. The early virtues that appeared in his 
childhood seemed to promise that he would 
become a great man. He was austere in his 
morals and a strict follower of the tenets of 
the Stoics. His fondness for candor was so 
great that his veracity became proverbial. In 
the Catilinian conspiracy he supported Cicero. 
and was the chief cause of the capital punish- 


ment which was inflicted on some of the con- 
spirators. He stabbed himself after reading 
Plato's treatise on the immortality of the 
soul, B.C. 46, in the fifty-ninth year of his 
age. Addison has familiarized us with a por- 
tion of the history of the great Roman in his 
noble tragedy of "Cato," in which occurs — in 
the fifth act — the well-known soliloquy on the 
immortality of the soul. Pope wrote the pro- 
logue to the play, which he commences with 
the familiar couplet : — 

" To wake the soul by tender strokes of art, 
To raise the genius, and to mend the heart." 

Catullus, C, or Q. Vale rius. A poet of Verona 
whose compositions are the offspring of a 
luxuriant imagination. He was acquainted 
with the most distinguished people of his age. 
He directed his satire against Csesar, whose 
only revenge was to invite him to a sumptu- 
ous banquet. 

Cel'sus, a physician in the age of Tiberius, who 
wrote eight books on medicine, besides trea- 
tises on agriculture, rhetoric, and military 

Centau'ri. A people of Thessaly, half men and 
half horses. They were the offspring of Cen- 
taurus and Stilbia. 

Centumviri. The members of a court of justice 
at Rome. Though originally 105 in number, 
they were known as Centumvirs, and this 
name they retained when they were increased 
to 180. 


Cer'berus. A dog of Pluto. According to Hesiod 
he had fifty heads, but according toother my- 
thologists he had three only. He was placed 
at the entrance to the infernal regions to pre- 
vent the living from entering, and the inhab- 
itants of the place from escaping. 

Ce'res, the goddess of corn and harvests, was 
daughter of Saturn and Vesta. She was the 
mother of Proserpine, who was carried away 
by Pluto while she was gathering flowers. 

Chaerone'a, a city of Boeotia celebrated for a great 
battle fought there in which the Athenians 
were defeated by the Boeotians, b.c. 447, and 
for the victory which Philip of Macedonia ob- 
tained there over the confederate armies of 
the Thebans and Athenians, b.c. 338. It was 
the birthplace of Plutarch. Milton in one of 
his sonnets alludes to the place : — 

" That dishonest victory, 
At Chaeronea fatal to liberty, 
Killed with report that old man eloquent." 

Isocrates is the "old man eloquent" thus al- 
luded to. 

Cha'ron. A god of the infernal regions, son of 
Nox and Erebus, who conducted the souls of 
the dead in a boat over the rivers Styx and 

Cheops. A king of Egypt, after Rhampsinitus, 
famous for building pyramids. 

Chimse'ra. A celebrated monster which continu- 
ally vomited flames. It was destroyed by 


Chi'ron. A centaur, half a man and half a horse, 
son of Philyra and Saturn. He was famous 
for his knowledge of music, medicine, and 
shooting, and taught mankind the use of 
plants and medicinal herbs. 

Chrysos'tom. A bishop of Constantinople who 
died A.D. 407. He was a great disciplinarian, 
and by severely lashing the vices of his age 
he made many enemies. 

Cic'ero, M. T., born at Arpinum, was son of a 
Roman knight and lineally descended from 
the ancient kings of the Sabines. In youth 
he displayed many abilities, and was taught 
philosophy by Philo, and law by Mutius Scse- 
vola. He applied himself with great dili- 
gence to the study of oratory and was distin- 
guished above all the speakers of his time in 
the Roman Forum. He signalized himself in 
opposing Catiline, whom he publicly accused 
of treason against the State, and whom he 
drove from the city. After a number of vicis- 
situdes of fortune he was assassinated, B.C. 
43, at the age of sixty-three. 

Cincinna'tus, L. Q. A celebrated Roman, who 
was informed as he plowed in the fields that 
the senate had chosen him to be dictator. On 
this he left the plow and repaired to the field 
of battle, where his countrymen were opposed 
by the Volsci and Alqui. He conquered the 
enemy, and entered Rome in triumph. 

Cir'ce. A daughter of Sol and Perseis, celebrated 
for her knowledge of magic and venomous 


herbs. She was carried by her father to an 
island called ^aea. Ulysses on his return 
from the Trojan war visited her coasts, and 
his companions were changed, by her potions, 
into swine. Ulysses, who was fortified 
against enchantments by an herb which he 
had received from Mercury, demanded of 
Circe the restoration of his companions to 
their former shape : she complied with his 
wishes, and eventually permitted him to de- 
part from her island. 

Claudia'nus. A celebrated poet, in the age of 
Honorius, who is considered by some writers 
to equal Virgil in the majestic character of 
his style. 

Claudius, T. Drusus Nero, son of Drusus, be- 
came emperor of Rome after the death of 
Caligula. He went to Britain, and obtained 
a triumph for victories achieved by his gen- 
erals. He suffered himself to be governed 
by favorites whose avarice plundered the State 
and distracted the provinces. He was poi- 
soned by Agrippina. who wished to raise her 
son Nero to the throne. 

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy 
Auletes, was celebrated for her beauty. An- 
tony became enamored of her and married 
her, ignoring his vows to Octavia, the sister 
of Augustus. He gave her the greatest part 
of the eastern provinces of the Roman empire. 
This caused a rupture between Augustus and 
Antony, and these two famous men met at 


Actium, when Cleopatra, by flying with sixty 
ships, ruined the battle for Antony, and he 
was defeated. Cleopatra destroyed herself by 
applying an asp to her breast. 

Cli'o. The first of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. She presided over history. 

Cloaci na. A goddess of Rome who presided 
over the Cloacae, which were large recepta- 
cles for the filth of the whole city. 

Clo'tho, the youngest of the three Parcae, who 
were daughters of Jupiter and Themis, was 
supposed to preside over the moment of birth. 
She held the distaff in her hand and spun the 
thread of life. 

Clytemnes tra. A daughter of Tyndarus, king 
of Sparta, and Leda. married Agamemnon, 
king of Argos, in whose absence in the Tro- 
jan war she misconducted herself with his 
cousin ^gysthus. On the return of Aga- 
memnon, Clytemnestra murdered him, as well 
as Cassandra whom he had brought with him. 
After this Clytemnestra ascended the throne 
of Argos. In the mean time her son Orestes, 
after an absence of seven years, returned, re- 
solved to avenge the death of his father Aga- 
memnon. On an occasion when ^gysthus 
and Clytemnestra repaired to the Temple of 
Apollo, Orestes, with his friend Pylades, 
killed them. 

Clyt'ia or Clyt ie. A daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, beloved by Apollo. She was changed 
into a sunflower. 


Codes, P. Horatius. A celebrated Roman who 
alone opposed the whole army of Porsenna at 
the head of a bridge while his companions 
were cutting off the communication with the 
other shore. When the bridge was destroyed, 
Codes, though wounded by the darts of the 
enemy, leapt into the Tiber and swam across 
it, armed as he was. For his heroism a 
brazen statue was raised to him in the Temple 
of Vulcan. Lord Macaulaj', who has written 
a noble poem on this heroic deed of Horatius 
Codes, says, "There are several versions of 
the story, and these versions differ from each 
other in points of no small importance." Ac- 
cording to his version Horatius had two com- 
panions who stood by his side defending the 
bridge ; these were Spurius Lartius and Her- 
minius. The final quatrain of the poem rec- 
ords how — 

" With weeping and with laughter 
Still is the story told, 
How well Horatius kept the bridge, 
In the brave days of old." 

Co'drus. The last king of Athens, son of Melan- 
thus. When the Heraclida? made war against 
Athens, the oracle said that the victory would 
be granted to that nation whose king was 
killed in battle. The Heraclidse on hearing 
this gave orders to spare the life of Codrus, 
but the patriotic king disguised himself, and 
engaging with one of the enemy, was killed. 
The Athenians obtained the victory, and 


Codrus was regarded as the savior of his 

Coe'lus or Ura'nus. An ancient deity supposed 
to be the father of Saturn, Oceanus, and 

Colchis or Corchos. A country of Asia famous 
for the expedition of the Argonauts, and as 
being the birthplace of Medea. 

Collati nus, L. Tarquin'ius. A nephew of Tar- 
quin the Proud. He married Lucretia. He, 
with Brutus, drove the Tarquins from Rome. 

Colossus. A celebrated brazen image at Rhodes, 
which was considered to be one of the seven 
wonders of the world. 

Com'modus, L. Aure'lius Antoni nus, son of M. 
Antoninus, succeeded his father in the Roman 
empire. He was naturally cruel and fond of 
indulging his licentious propensities. I^esir- 
ous of being likened to Hercules, he adorned 
his shoulders with a lion's skin, and carried 
a knotted club in his hand. He fought with 
the gladiators, and boasted of his skill in kill- 
ing wild beasts in the amphitheater. He was 
strangled by a wrestler in the thirty-first year 
of his age, a.i;. iq2. 

Co'mus. The god of revelry, feasting, and noc- 
turnal amusements. He is represented as a 
drunken young man with a torch in his 

Concordia. The goddess of peace and concord 
at Rome, to whom Camillus raised a temple 
in the Capitol. 


Confucius. A Chinese philosopher, as much 
honored among his countrymen as if he had 
been a monarch. He died about 499 years 


Co'non. A famous general of Athens, son of 
Timotheus. He was made governor of all the 
islands of the Athenians, and was defeated in 
a naval battle by Lysander. He defeated the 
Spartans near Cnidos, when Pisander, the 
enemy's admiral, was killed. He died in 
prison B.C. 393. 

Constan tia. A grand-daughter of the great 
Constantine, who married the Emperor Gra- 

Constanti nus, surnamed the Great from the 
greatness of his exploits, was son of Constan- 
tius. It is said that as he was going to fight 
against Maxentius, one of his rivals, he saw 
a cross in the sky with the inscription, In hoc 
vi7ice. From this he became a convert to 
Christianity, ever after adopting a cross for 
his standard. He founded a city where old 
Byzantium formerly stood, and called it Con- 
stantinopolis. There he kept his court, and 
made it the rival of Rome in population and 
magnificence. He died a.d. 337, after a reign 
of thirty-one years of the greatest glory. 

Constan tius Chlo rus, son of Eutropius, and 
father of the great Constantine. He obtained 
victories in Britain and Germany. He be- 
came the colleague of Galerius on the abdica- 
tion of Diocletian, and died a.d. 306, bearing 


the reputation of being brave, humane, and 

Consul. A magistrate at Rome with regal au- 
thority for the space of a year. There were 
two consuls, who were annually chosen in the 
Campus Martins. The first two were L. Jun. 
Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus. 

Corin'na. A celebrated woman of Thebes, whose 
father was Archelodorus. It is said that she 
obtained a poetical prize five times against 
the competitorship of Pindar. 

Coriola'nus. The surname of C. Martins, from 
his victory over Corioli. After a number of 
military exploits, and many services to his 
country, he was refused the consulship. He 
was banished, and went to the Volsci, where 
he met with a gracious reception from Tullus 
Aufidius, whom he advised to make war 
against Rome, marching with the Volsci as 
general. His approach alarmed the Romans, 
who sent his mother and bis wife to meet him 
and appease his resentment against his coun- 
trymen, which with difficulty they succeeded 
in doing. Shakspeare has made his history 
the sul)ject of the tragedy of "Coriolanus," 
which concludes with the assassination of the 
hero by Tullus Aufidius and his attendants. 

Come lia. A daughter of Scipio Africanus, 
famous for her learning and virtues, and as 
being the mother of the Gracchi, Tiberius and 
Caius Gracchus. Her husband was T. Sem- 
pronius Gracchus. 


Cras sus, M. Licin ius. A celebrated Roman, 
who by educating slaves and selling them, be- 
came very wealthy. He was made consul 
with Pompey, and was afterward censor, and 
formed one of the first triumvirate, his associ- 
ates in it being Pompey and Caesar. In the 
hope of enlarging his possessions he left 
Rome, crossed the Euphrates, and hastened 
to make himself master of Parthia. He was 
met by Surena the Parthian general, and in 
the battle which ensued 20,000 of the Romans 
were killed and 10,000 made prisoners. Cras- 
sus surrendered, and was put to death b.c. 53. 

Creon, king of Corinth, was son of Sisyphus. 
He promised his daughter Glauce to Jason, 
who had repudiated Medea. To revenge her- 
self on her rival, Medea sent her a present of 
a dress covered with poison. Glauce put it 
on, and was seized with sudden pain. Her 
body took fire, and she expired in the greatest 
agony. The house in which she was was also 
consumed, and Creon and his family shared 
Glance's fate. 

Cre'on. King of Thebes, whose territories were 
ravaged by the Sphinx. Creon offered his 
crown to any one who would explain the 
enigmas proposed by the Sphinx. CEdipus 
solved the riddles, and ascended the throne of 

CrcE sus, the fifth and last of the Mermnadse, who 
reigned in Lydia, was the son of Alyattes, 
and was considered the richest man in the 


world. His court was an asylum for learn- 
ing, and ^sop, the famous fable writer, with 
other learned men, lived under his patronage. 
"As rich as Croesus," has become a proverb. 

Cupi do, god of love, son of Jupiter and Venus, 
is represented as a winged infant, naked, 
armed with a bow and arrows. On gems and 
ornaments he is represented generally as 
amusing himself with some childish diver- 
sion. Cupid, like the rest of the gods, as- 
sumed different shapes, and we find him in 
the ^neid putting on, at the request of his 
mother, the form of Ascanius, and going to 
Dido's court, where he inspired the queen 
with love. 

Cur'tius, M. A Roman who devoted himself to 
the service of his country, about 360 j'-ears 
B.C., by leaping, on horseback and fully 
armed, into a huge gap in the earth at the 
command of the oracle. 

Cyb ele. A goddess, daughter of Coelus and 
Terra, and wife of Saturn. She is supposed 
to be the same as Ceres. Rhea, Ops, Vesta, 
etc. According to Diodorus, she was the 
daughter of a Lydian prince. On her birth 
she was exposed on a mountain, where she 
was tended and fed by wild beasts, receiving 
the name of Cybele from the mountain where 
her life had been preserved. 

Cyclopes. A race of men of gigantic stature, 
supposed to be the sons of Ctielus and Terra. 
They had only one eye, which was in the cen- 


tre of the forehead. According to Hesiod 
they were three in number, and named Arges, 
Brontes, and Steropes. 

Cyrus. A king of Persia, son of Cambyses, 
and Mandane, daughter of Astyages, king of 
Media. Xenophon has written the life of 
Cyrus, and delineates him as a brave and vir- 
tuous prince, and often puts in his mouth many 
of the sayings of Socrates. 

Cy'rus the younger was the son of Darius Nothus 
and the brother of Artaxerxes, the latter suc- 
ceeding to the throne at the death of Nothus. 
Cyrus was appointed to the command of 
Lydia and the sea-coasts, where he fomented 
rebellion and levied troops under various pre- 
tenses. At length he took the field with an 
army of 100,000 Barbarians and 13,000 Greeks 
under the command of Clearchus. Artaxerxes 
met him with 900,000 men near Cunaxa. The 
engagement ended fatally for Cyrus, who was 
killed, 401 years b.c. 

Daedalus, an Athenian, was the most ingenious 
artist of his age ; he was the inventor of the 
wedge and many other mechanical instru- 
ments. He made a famous labyrinth for 
Minos, king of Crete, but incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Minos, who ordered him to be 
confined in the labyrinth. Here he made 
himself wings with feathers and wax, and 
fitted them to his body, adopting the same 
course with his son Icarus who was the com- 


panion of his confinement. They mounted 
into the air, but the heat of the sun melted the 
wax on the wings of Icarus, and he fell into 
the ocean, which after him has been called 
the Icarian Sea. The father alighted safely 
at Cumae, where he built a temple to Apollo. 

Dan'ae, daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, and 
Eurydice. Jupiter was enamored with her, 
and they had a son, with whom Danae was 
exposed in a boat on the sea by her father. 
The winds carried them to the island of Seri- 
phus, where she was saved by some fisher- 
men, and carried to Polydectes, king of the 
place, whose brother, named Dictys, educated 
the child, who was called Perseus, and kindly 
treated the mother. 

Dana'ides. The fifty daughters of Danaus, king 
of Argos, who married the fifty sons of their 
uncle ^gyptus. Danaus had been told by 
the oracle that he would be killed by a son-in- 
law, and he made his daughters promise to 
slay their husbands immediately after mar- 
riage. All of them fulfilled their father's 
wishes except one, Ilypermnestra, who spared 
her husband Lynceus. 

Daph'ne. A daughter of the River Peneus, or of 
the Ladon, and the goddess Terra, of whom 
Apollo became enamored. Daphne fled to 
avoid the addresses of this god, and was 
changed into a laurel. 

Dar'danus. A son of Jupiter, who killed his 
brother Jasius to obtain the kingdom of 


Etruria. He built the city of Dardania, and 
was reckoned to have been the founder of 

Dari us. A noble satrap of Persia, son of Hys- 
taspes, who usurped the crown of Persia after 
the death of Cambyses. Darius was twenty- 
nine years old when he ascended the throne, 
and he soon distinguished himself by his mil- 
itary prowess. He besieged Babylon, which 
he took after a siege of twenty months. He 
died B.C. 4S5. 

Dari us, the second king of Persia of that name, 
ascended the throne of Persia soon after the 
murder of Xerxes. He carried on many wars 
with success, aided by his generals and his 
son Cyrus the younger. He died b.c. 404, 
after a reign of nineteen years. 

Dari us. The third king of Persia of that name. 
He soon had to take the field against Alexan- 
der, who invaded Persia. Darius met him 
with an enormous army, which, however, was 
more remarkable for the luxuries indulged in 
by its leaders than for military courage. A 
battle was fought near the Granicus, in which 
the Persians were easily defeated, and an- 
other conflict followed near Issus, equally 
fatal to the Persians. Darius escaped and 
assembled another powerful army. The last 
and decisive battle was fought at Arbela, Al- 
exander being again victorious. When the 
fight was over Darius was found in his chariot 
covered with wounds and expiring, b.c. 331. 


Dejani'ra. A daughter of CEneus, king of ^tolia. 
Her beauty procured her many admirers, and 
her father promised to give her in marriage 
to him who should excel in a competition of 
strength. Hercules obtained the prize, and 
married Dejanira. 

Del phi. A town of Phocis at the southwest side 
of Mount Parnassus. It was famous for a 
temple of Apollo, and for an oracle celebrated 
in every age and country. 

Demetrius. A son of Antigonus and Stratonice, 
surnamed Poliorcetes, destroyt:?' of to7i'?is. 
At the age of twenty-two he was sent by his 
father against Ptolemy, who had invaded 
Syria. He was defeated at Gaza, but soon 
afterward obtained a victory. The greater 
part of his life was passed in warfare, his for- 
tunes undergoing many changes. He was- 
distinguished for his fondness of dissipation 
when in dissolute society, and for military 
skill and valor in the battle-field. He died 
B.C. 2S6. 

Demetrius. Surnamed Safer, king of Syria. 
His father gave him as a hostage to the 
Romans. After the death of his father, Se- 
leucus Philopator, Antiochus Epiphanes 
usurped the throne of Syria, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Antiochus Eupator. De- 
metrius procured his liberty, and established 
himself on the throne, causing Eupator to be 
put to death. 

Demetrius. Son of Soter, whom he succeeded 


after he had driven from the throne a usurper, 
Alexander Bala. Demetrius gave himself up 
to luxury, and suffered his kingdom to be 
governed by his favorites, thus becoming 
odious to his subjects. He was at last killed 
by the governor of Tyre, where he had fled 
for protection. 

Demetrius Phale'reus. A disciple of Theophras- 
tus, who gained such influence over the Athe- 
nians by his eloquence and the purity of his 
manners, that he was elected decennial archon, 
B.C. 317. He embellished the city, and ren- 
dered himself popular by his munificence, but 
his enemies plotted against him, and he fled 
to the court of Ptolemy Lagus, where he was 
received with kindness. He put an end to his 
life by permitting an asp to bite him, b.c. 284. 
There were several others of the name of De- 
metrius of minor note. 

Democ'ritus. A celebrated philosopher of Abdera, 
one of the disciples of Leucippus. He trav- 
eled over the greatest part of Europe, Asia, 
and Africa in quest of knowledge, and re- 
turned home in the greatest poverty. He in- 
dulged in continual laughter at the follies of 
mankind for distracting themselves with care 
and anxiety in the short term of their lives. 
He told Darius, who was inconsolable for the 
loss of his wife, that he would raise her from 
the dead if he could find three persons who 
had gone through life without adversity, 
whose names he might engrave on the queen's 


monument. He taught his disciples that the 
soul died with the body. He died in his 109th 
year, b. c. 361. He has been termed "the 
laughing philosopher." Dr. Johnson refers 
to this phase in his character in "The Vanity 
of Human Wishes :" — 

" Once more, Democritus, arise on earth, 
With cheerful wisdom and instructive mirth. 
See motley life in modern trappings drest. 
And feed with varied fools th' eternal jest." 

Demosthenes, a celebrated Athenian, was son of 
a rich blacksmith, and Cleobule. He became 
pupil of Plato, and applied himself to study 
the orations of Isocrates. At the age of sev- 
enteen he gave early proof of his eloquence 
and abilities in displaying them against his 
guardians, from whom he obtained restitution 
of the greater part of his estate. To correct 
the stammering of voice under which he 
labored he spoke with pebbles in his mouth. 
In the battle of Cheronaea he evinced coward- 
ice, and saved his life by flight. He ended 
his life by taking poison, which he always 
carried in a quill, in the sixtieth year of his 
age, B.C. 322. 

Deuca lion. A son of Prometheus, who married 
Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus. He 
reigned over part of Thessaly, and in his age 
the earth was covered by a deluge of water, 
sent by Jupiter as a punishment for the im- 
piety of mankind. Deucalion constructed a 
ship, and by this means saved himself and 


Pyrrha. The ship, after being tossed on the 
waves for nine days, rested on Mount Parnas- 
sus. The deluge of Deucalion is supposed to 
have occurred b.c. 1503. 

Diana. The goddess of hunting. According to 
Cicero there were three of the name — viz. , a 
daughter of Jupiter and Proserpine, a daugh- 
ter of Jupiter and Latona, and a daughter of 
Upis and Glauce. The second is the most 
celebrated, and all mention of Diana by 
ancient writers refers to her. To shun the 
society of men she devoted herself to hunting, 
and was always accompanied by a number of 
young women, who, like herself, abjured 
marriage. She is represented with a quiver, 
and attended by dogs. The most famous of 
her temples was that at Ephesus, which was 
one of the wonders of the world. 

Dictator. A magistrate at Rome, invested with 
regal authority. 

Di do. A daughter of Belus. king of Tyre, who 
married Sichasus or Sicharbus, her uncle, who 
was priest of Hercules. Pygmalion killed 
Sichaeus to obtain his immense riches, and 
Dido, disconsolate at the loss of her husband, 
set sail with a number of Tyrians in quest of 
a place in which to form a settlement. A 
storm drove her fleet on the African coast, and 
she bought of the inhabitants as much land 
as could be inclosed by a bull's hide cut into 
thongs. On this land she built a citadel 
called Byrsa, which was the nucleus of a great 


city (Carthage) . Her subjects wished her to 
marry again, but she refused, and erected a 
funeral pile, on which she ascended and 
stabbed herself to death. 

Diocletia nus, Cai us Valer ius Jo vius. A cele- 
brated Roman emperor, born of an obscure 
family in Dalmatia. He was first a common 
soldier, and by merit gradually rose to the 
position of a general, and at length he was 
invested with imperial power. He has been 
celebrated for his military virtues, and 
though he was naturally unpolished by educa- 
tion, yet he was the friend and patron of learn- 
ing and genius. His cruelty, however, 
against the followers of Christianity has been 
severely reprobated. After reigning twenty- 
one years in great prosperity, he abdicated, 
A.D. 304, and died nine years afterward, aged 

Diodo'rus, Sic ulus. Celebrated as the author of 
a history of Egypt, Persia, Syria, Media, 
Greece, Rome, and Carthage. It was divided 
into forty books, of which only fifteen are ex- 
tant, with a few fragments. 

Diogenes. A celebrated cynic philosopher of 
Sinope, banished from his country for coining 
false money. From Sinope he retired to 
Athens, where he became the disciple of An- 
tisthenes. who was at the head of the Cynics. 
He dressed himself in the garment which dis- 
tinguished the Cynics, and walked about the 
streets with a tub on his head, which served 


him as a house. His singularity, joined to 
his great contempt for riches, gained him 
reputation, and Alexander the Great visited 
the philosopher and asked him if there was 
anything in which he could oblige him. "Get 
out of my sunshine," was the reply of the 
Cynic. Such independence pleased the mon- 
arch, who, turning to his courtiers, said, 
"Were I not Alexander, I would wish to be 
Diogenes. " He was once sold as a slave, and 
his magnanimity so pleased his master, that 
he made him the preceptor of his children and 
the guardian of his estates. He died, b.c. 
324, in the ninety-sixth year of his age. The 
life of Diogenes does not bear strict examina- 
tion : while boasting of his poverty, he was 
so arrogant that it has been observed that his 
virtues arose from pride and vanity, not from 
wisdom or sound philosophy. 

Dio'genes Laer tins. An Epicurean philosopher, 
born in Cilicia. He wrote the lives of the phil- 
osophers in ten books. This work contains 
an accurate account of the ancient philoso- 
phers, and is replete with anecdotes respecting 
them. It is compiled, however, without any 
plan, method, or precision, though neatness 
and conciseness are observable in it. 

Diome'des, a son of Tydeus and Deiphyle, was 
king of ^tolia. and one of the bravest of the 
Grecian chiefs in the Trojan war. He often 
engaged Hector and ^neas, and obtained 
much military glory. 


Diome des. A king of Thrace, son of Mars and 
Cyrene. who fed his horses with human flesh. 
Hercules destroyed Diomedes, and gave him 
to his own horses to be devoured. 

Di on. A Syracusan, son of Hipparina, famous 
for his pow-er and abilities. He was related 
toDionysiusthe First, who constantly advised 
with him, and at whose court he obtained 
great popularity. He was assassinated 354 
years before the Christian era by one of his 
familiar friends. His death was greatly la- 
mented by the Syracusans, who raised a mon- 
ument to his memory. When Dionysius the 
Second ascended the throne he banished Dion, 
who collected some forces, and in three days 
made himself master of Syracuse. 

Di on Cas'sius. A native of Nicsea in Bithynia. 
who was raised to some of the greatest offices of 
state in the Roman empire. He is celebrated 
as the writer of a history of Rome which 
occupied him twelve years in composing. 

Dionysius the Elder Avas son of Hermocrates. 
He signalized himself in the w^ars which the 
Syracusans carried on against Carthage, and 
made himself absolute at Syracuse. His 
tyranny rendered him odious to his subjects. 
He made a subterraneous cave in a rock in the 
form of a human ear, which was called "the 
Ear of Dionysius." The sounds of this cave 
were all directed to one common tympanum, 
which had a communication with an adjoining 
room, where Dionysius spent part of his time 


in listening to what was said by those whom 
he had imprisoned. He died in the sixty- 
third year of his age, B.C. 368, after a reign of 
thirty-eight years. 

Dionys'ius the Younger was son of Dionysius the 
First and Doris. He succeeded his father, 
and as soon as he ascended the throne he in- 
vited Plato to his court and studied under him 
for some time. Plato advised him to lay 
aside the supreme power, in which he was 
supported by Dion. This highly incensed 
Dionysius, who banished Dion, who collected 
forces in Greece, and in three days rendered 
himself master of Syracuse, and expelled the 
tyrant, B.C. 357. He, however, recovered 
Syracuse ten years afterward, but was soon 
compelled to retire again by the Corinthians 
under Timoleon. 

Dionys'ius, of Halicarnassus. A historian who 
left his country and came to reside in Rome 
that he might study all the authors who had 
written Roman history. He was occupied dur- 
ing twenty-four years on his work on Roman 
antiquities, which consisted of twenty books. 

Dir'ce. A woman whom Lycus, king of Thebes, 
married after he had divorced Antiope. Am- 
phion and Zethus, sons of Antiope, for cruel- 
ties she practiced on Antiope, tied Dirce to 
the tail of a wild bull, by which she was 
dragged over rocks and precipices till the gods 
pitied her and changed her into a fountain. 

Discor dia. A malevolent deity, daughter of Nox, 


and sister to Nemesis, the Parcae, and Death. 
She was driven from heaven by Jupiter be- 
cause she sowed dissensions among the gods. 
At the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis she threw 
an apple among the gods, inscribed with the 
words, Detur pulchriori, which was the pri- 
mary cause of the ruin of Troy, and of infinite 
misfortunes to the Greeks, 

Dolabel'la, P. Corn. A Roman who married the 
daughter of Cicero. During the civil wars he 
warmly espoused the cause of Julius Caesar, 
whom he accompanied at the famous battles 
of Pharsalia and Munda. 

Domitia'nus, Ti tus Flavins, son of Vespasian 
and Flavia Domitilla, made himself emperor 
of Rome on the death of his brother Titus, 
whom, according to some accounts, he de- 
stroyed by poison. The beginning of his 
reign promised hopefully, but Domitian be- 
came cruel, an(J gave way to vicious indul- 
gences. In the latter part of his reign he be- 
came suspicious and remorseful. He was 
assassinated a.d. 96, in his forty-fifth year. 

Dra'co. A celebrated lawgiver of Athens, who 
made a code of laws, b.c. 623, which, on ac- 
count of their severity, were said to be written 
in letters of blood. Hence the term "Dra- 
conic, " applied to any punishment of excep- 
tional severity. 

Dni'sus. A son of Tiberius and Vipsania, who 
became famous for his courage displayed in 
Illyricum and Pannonia. 


Dru'sus, M. Liv'ius. A celebrated Roman, who 
renewed the puoposals bearing on the Agra- 
rian laws, which had proved fatal to the 

Dru'sus, Nero Claudius. A son of Tiberius Nero 
and Livia. He distinguished himself in the 
wars in Germany and Gaul, and was honored 
with a triumph. There were other Romans 
of the same name, but of smaller distinction. 

Dry'ades. Nymphs that presided over the woods. 
Oblations of milk, oil, and honey were offered 
to them. Sometimes the votaries of the 
Dryads sacrificed a goat to them. 

Duum'viri. Two patricians at Rome, first ap- 
pointed by Tarquin to keep the Sibylline 
books, which were supposed to contain the 
fate of the Roman empire. 

Echo. A daughter of the Air and Tellus, who 
was one of Juno's attendants. She was de- 
prived of speech by Juno, but was allowed to 
reply to questions put to her. 

Ege'ria. A nymph of Aricia in Italy, where 
Diana was particularly worshiped. Egeria 
was courted by Numa. and, according to 
Ovid, became his wife. Ovid says that she 
was disconsolate at the death of Numa, and 
that she wept so violently that Diana changed 
her into a fountain. Lord Byron, in the 
fourth canto of "Childe Harold," has a beau- 
tiful invocation to the nymph, while describ- 
ing the fountain of Egeria : — 

78 CXASSICAL J)r:tionary 

"Here did'st thou sit in this enchanted cover, 
Egeria ! thy all heavenly bosotr^ beating 
For the far footsteps of thy mortal lover; 
The purple midnight veil d that mystic meeting 
With her most starr}' canopy, and seating 
Thyself by thine adorer, what befel ? 
This cave was surely shap'd out for the greeting 
Of an enamor'd goddess, and the cell 

Haunted by holy love— the earliest oracle!" 

Elec'tra. A daughter of Agamemnon, king of 
Argos. She incited her brother Orestes to 
revenge his father's death by assassinating 
his mother Clytemnestra. Her adventures 
and misfortunes form the subject of one of the 
finest of the tragedies of Sophocles. 

Eleusin'ia. A great festival observed by the 
Lacedaemonians, Cretans, and others, every 
fourth year, and by the people of Athens 
every fifth year, at Eleusis in Attica, where 
it was introduced by Eumolpus, b.c, 1356. It 
was the most celebrated of all the religious 
ceremonies of Greece. The term " Mysteries" 
is often applied to it. The expression "Eleu- 
sinian mysteries," as applied to anything that 
is inexplicable, has become proverbial. 

Elys'ium. The Elysian Fields, a place in the in- 
fernal regions, where, according to the an- 
cients, the souls of the virtuous existed after 

Emped'ocles. A philosopher, poet, and historian 
of Agrigentum in Sicily, who lived 444 b.c. 
He was a Pythagorean, and warmly espoused 
the belief in the transmigration of souls. 


Endym ion. A shepherd, son of ^thlius and 
Calyce. He is said to have required of Jupi- 
ter that he might be ahva5'S young. Diana 
saw him as he slept on Mount Latmos, and 
was so struck with his beauty that she came 
down from heaven every night to visit him. 

En'nius. An ancient poet, born in Calabria. He 
obtained the privileges of a Roman citizen on 
account of his learning and genius. 

Eos. The name of Aurora among the Greeks. 

Epaminon das. A famous Theban descended 
from the ancient kings of Boeotia. At the 
head of the Theban armies he defeated the 
Spartans at the celebrated battle of Leuctra 
about 370 B.C. He was killed in battle in the 
forty-eighth year of his age. 

Eph'esus. A city of Ionia, famous for a temple 
of Diana, which was considered to be one of 
the seven wonders of the world. 

Epicte'tus. A Stoic philosopher of Hieropolis. 
originally the slave of Epaphroditus. the 
freedman of Nero. He supported the doctrine 
of the immortality of the soul. 

Epicurus. A celebrated philosopher, born in 
Attica of obscure parents. He distinguished 
himself at school by the brilliancy of his ge- 
nius. He taught that the happiness of man- 
kind consisted in pleasure, which arises from 
mental enjoyment, and the sweets of virtue. 
His death occurred 270 b.c. . his age being 
seventy-two years. 

Er'ato. One of the Muses. She presided over 


lyric poetry, and is represented as crowned 
with roses and myrtle, and holding a lyre in 
her hand. 

Er'ebus. A deity of the infernal regions, son of 
Chaos and Darkness. The poets often use 
the word to signify the infernal regions. 

Ete'ocles. A king of Thebes, son of Qj^dipns and 
Jocasta. After his father's death it was 
agreed between him and his brother Polynices 
that they should reign a year each alternately, 
Eteocles first ascended the throne, but at the 
end of the year he refused to resign the crown 
Thus treated, Polynices implored assistance* 
from Adrastus, king of Argos, whose daugh ■ 
ter he married, and who placed an army a'; 
his disposal. Eteocles marshaled his forces, 
and several skirmishes took place between th?) 
hostile hosts, when it was agreed on that the, 
brothers should decide the contest by single; 
combat. They fought with inveterate fury, 
and both were killed. 

Eucli'des. A famous mathematician of Alexan- 
dria, who lived r.c. 300. He wrote fifteen 
books on the elements of mathematics. Eu- 
clid was so much respected that King Ptolemy 
became one of his pupils. 

Eu'menes. A Greek officer in the army of Alex- 
ander. He was the most worthy of all Alex- 
ander's generals to succeed him after his 
death. He conquered Paphlagonia and Cap- 
padocia, of which he obtained the government, 
till the power of Antigonus obliged him to 



retire. Eventually, after many vicissitudes 
of fortune, he was put to death in prison by 
order of Antigonus. 

Eumen'ides. A name given to the Furies. They 
sprang from the drops of blood which flowed 
from a wound which Coelus received from 
Saturn. According to some writers they 
were daughters of the Earth, and sprung 
from the blood of Saturn. Others make them 
to be daughters of Acheron and Night, or 
Pluto and Proserpine. According to the gen- 
erally received opinion they were three in 
number — Tisiphone. Megara, and Alecto, to 
which some add Nemesis. 

Euphor'bus. A famous Trojan. He wounded 
Patroclus, whom Hector killed. He died by 
the hand of Menelaus. 

Euphrates. A large river in Asia which flowed 
through the middle of the city of Babylon. 

Eurip ides. A celebrated tragic poet born at Sal- 
amis. He studied eloquence under Prodicus, 
ethics under Socrates, and philosophy under 
Anaxagoras. He often retired to a solitary 
cave, where he wrote his tragedies. It is said 
that he met his death by being attacked and 
torn in pieces by dogs, 407 years before the 
Christian era, in the seventy-eighth year of 
his age. He is accredited with the authorship 
of seventy- five tragedies, of which only nine- 
teen are extant. One of his plays, "Ion." has 
become familiarized in name to general read- 
ers by the exquisite play thus called written 


by the late Judge Talfourd, and first acted at 
Covent Garden theatre, London, May 26, 1836. 

Euro pa. A daughter of Agenor, king of Phoeni- 
cia, and Telaphassa. Her beauty attracted 
Jupiter, and to become possessed of her he 
assumed the shape of a handsome bull, and 
mingled with the herds of Agenor while Eu- 
ropa was gathering flowers in the meadows. 
She caressed the animal, and mounted on his 
back. The god crossed the sea with her, and 
arrived in Crete, where he assumed his proper 
form, and declared his love. She became 
mother of Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadaman- 

Euryd'ice. The wife of the poet Orpheus. As 
she fled from Aristaeus, who was enamored 
with her, she was bit by a serpent, and died 
of the wound. Orpheus was disconsolate at 
her loss, and descended to the infernal regions 
in search of her, and by the melody of his 
lyre he obtained from Pluto the restoration of 
Eurydice, provided he did not look behind 
him till he reached the earth ; but his eager- 
ness to see his wife caused him to violate the 
conditions, and he looked behind him, thus 
losing Eurydice for ever. 

Euryd ice. Wife of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. 
Alexander. Perdiccas, and Philip were their 
sons, and they had a daughter named Eury- 
one. She conspired against Amyntas. but 
was prevented from killing him by Euryone. 

Eurys thenes. A son of Aristodemus. who lived 


in perpetual dissension with his twin brother 
Procles while they both sat on the Spartan 
throne. The descendants of Eurysthenes 
were called Eurysthenidtc, and those of Pro- 
cles Proclidse. 

Eurys'theus. A king of Argos and Mycenae, son 
of Sthenelus and Nicippe. Juno hastened his 
birth by two months that he might come into 
the world before Hercules, the son of Alc- 
mena, as the younger of the two was doomed 
by Jupiter to be subservient to the other. 
This natural right was cruelly exercised by 
Eurystheus, who was jealous of the fame of 
Hercules, and who, to destroy him, imposed 
upon him the most dangerous enterprises, 
known as the Twelve Labors of Hercules, all 
of which were successfully accomplished. 

Euse'bius. A bishop of Caesarea, in favor with 
the Emperor Constantine. He was mixed up 
in the theological disputes of Arius and Atha- 
nasius, and distinguished himself by writing 
an ecclesiastical history and other works. 

Euterpe. One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. She presided over music. 

Eutro'pius. A Latin historian in the age of 
Julian. He wrote an epitome of the history 
of Rome from the age of Romulus to the 
reign of the emperor Valens. 

Fa'bii. A noble and powerful family at Rome. 
They fought with the Veientes. and all of 
them were slain. One of the family, of ten- 


der age, remained in Rome, and from him 
descended the family which afterwards became 
so distinguished. 

Fa'bius, Max imus Rullia nus, was the first of the 
Fabii who obtained the name of "Maximus." 
He was master of the horse, and his victory 
over the Samnites in that capacity nearly cost 
him his life. He was five times consul, twice 
dictator, and once censor. 

Fa'bius, Q. Max imus. A celebrated Roman who 
was raised to the highest offices of state. In 
his first consulship he obtained a victory over 
Liguria, and the battle of Thrasymenus caused 
his election to the dictatorship. In this office 
he opposed Hannibal, harassing him more by 
counter-marches and ambuscades than by 
fighting in the open field. He died at the age 
of one hundred, after being consul five times. 
Others of the family were of minor distinc- 
tion, though their names occur in Roman 

Fabric ius, Cai'us. A distinguished Roman who 
ill his first consulship obtained several victor- 
ies over the Samnites and Lucanians. He 
had the most consummate knowledge of mili- 
tary matters, and was distinguished for the 
simplicity of his manners. 

Faler'nus. A fertile mountain and plain of Cam- 
pania, famous for its wine. Falernian wine 
was held in great esteem by the Romans, and 
it is often alluded to by the poets. 

Fau'ni. Rural deities represented as having the 


legs, feet, and ears of goats, and the rest of 
the body human. 

Flac cus. A consul who marched against Sj'lla 
and was assassinated. 

Flamin ius, T, Q. A famous Roman who was 
trained in the art of war against Hannibal. 
He was sent in command of the Roman troops 
against Philip of Macedonia, and met with 
great success. 

Flora. The goddess of flowers and gardens 
among the Romans. She was the same as 
the Chloris of the Greeks. 

Fortu na. A powerful deity among the ancients, 
daughter of Oceanus according to Homer, or 
one of the Parcae according to Pindar. She 
was the goddess of Fortune, and bestowed 
riches or poverty on mankind. 

Ful'via. An ambitious woman, wife of the tribune 
Clodius, afterward of Curio, and lastly of An- 
tony. Antony divorced her for Cleopatra. 
She attempted to avenge her wrongs by per- 
suading Augustus to take up arms against 

Galatae'a. A sea nymph, daughter of Nereus and 
Doris. She was loved by Polyphemus, the 
Cyclops, whom she treated with disdain, 
while she was in love with Acis, a shepherd 
of Sicily. 

Gal'ba, Ser'vius Sulpi cius. A Roman who rose 
to the greatest offices of the state, and exer- 
cised his powers with equity till he was seated 


on the throne, when his virtues disappeared. 
He was assassinated in the seventy-third year 
of his age. 

Gallie nus, Pub. Licin ius, A son of the emperor 
Valerian. He reigned conjointly with his 
father for seven years, and then became sole 
emperor, a.d. 260. In his youth he showed 
military ability in an expedition against the 
Germans and Sarmatse, but when possessed of 
the purple he gave himself up to pleasure and 
vice. He was assassinated in his fiftieth year. 
A.D. 268. 

Gal'lus, Corne lius. A Roman knight famous for 
his poetical as well as his military talents. 
He was greatly attached to his slave Lycoris 
(or Cytheris). whose beauty he extolled in his 

Ganyme'des. A beautiful youth of Phrygia. He 
was taken to heaven by Jupiter while tending 
flocks on Mount Ida, and he became the cup- 
bearer of the gods in place of Hebe. 

Gel'lius Au'lus. A Roman grammarian in the 
age of M. Antoninus. He wrote a work called 
"Noctes Atticse." which he composed at 

German'icus Cae sar, A son of Drusus and An- 
tonia, the niece of Augustus. He was raised 
to the most important position in the state, 
and was employed in war in Germany, where 
his successes obtained him a triumph. He 
was secretly poisoned, a.d. 19, in the thirty- 
fourth year of his age. He has been com- 


mended not only for his military talents but 
for his learning and humanity. 

Ge'ryon. A monster, represented by the poets as 
having three bodies and three heads. It was 
killed by Hercules. 

Gigan tes. The sons of Coelus and Terra, who, 
according to Hesiod, sprang from the blood of 
a wound inflicted on Coelus by his son Saturn. 
They are represented as huge giants, with 
strength in accordance with their size. 

Glau'cus. A son of Hippolochus, the son of Bel- 
lerophon. He aided Priam in the Trojan 
war, and was noted for his folly in exchang- 
ing his golden armor with Diomedes for an 
iron one. 

Glau cus. A fisherman of Boeotia. He observed 
that the fishes which he caught and laid on 
the grass became invigorated and leaped into 
the sea. He tasted the grass, and suddenly 
felt a desire to live in the sea. He was made 
a sea deity by Oceanus and Tethys. 

Glaucus. A son of Minos the Second and Pasiphaj, 
who was smothered in a cask of honey. The 
soothsayer Polyidus, on being commanded by 
Minos to find his son, discovered him, and by 
rubbing his body with a certain herb restored 
him to life. 

Gordianus, M. Anto'nius Africa nus. Son of 
Metius Marcellus. He applied himself to 
poetry, and composed a poem in thirty books. 
He was sent as proconsul to Africa, and sub- 
sequently, when he had attained his eighti- 


eth year, he was proclaimed emperor. He 
strangled himself at Carthage a.d. 236, and 
was deeply lamented by the army and the 

Gordia'nus, M. Anto nius Africa nus, son of Gor- 
dianus, was made prefect of Rome, and af- 
terward consul by Alexander Severus. He 
was elected emperor in conjunction with his 
father. He was killed in a battle fought with 
Maximinus in Mauritania. 

Gordia'nus, M. Anto'nius Pius, was grandson of 
the first Gordian. He was proclaimed em- 
peror in the sixteenth year of his age. He 
married the daughter of Misetheus, who was 
distinguished by his virtues, and to whom 
Gordian entrusted many of the chief offices of 
the state. Gordian conquered Sapor, king of 
Persia, and took many cities from him. He 
was assassinated a.d. 244. 

Gor'dius. A Phrygian who, from the position of 
a peasant, was raised to the throne consequent 
on a prediction of the oracle. The knot which 
tied the yoke to the draught-tree of his chariot 
was made so cunningly that the ends of the 
cord could not be seen, and a report arose that 
the empire of Asia was promised by the oracle 
to him Avho should untie the Gordian knot. 
Alexander cut the knot with his sword. 

Gor'gones (the Gorgons). Three sisters, daugh- 
ters of Phorcys and Ceto, whose names were 
Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa. They pos- 
sessed the power of turning into stone those 


on whom they looked. Perseus attacked them 
and cut off Medusa's head, which he gave to 
Minerva, who placed it on her aegis, which 
turned into stone those who fixed their eyes 
on it. 

Grac chus, T. Sempronius, was twice consul and 
once censor. He married Cornelia, of the 
family of the Scipios, a woman of piety and 
learning. Their children , Tiberius and Caius, 
rendered themselves famous for their obstinate 
attachment to the interests of the populace, 
which at last proved fatal to them. The 
Gracchi stand out conspicuously in Roman 
annals. The history of Caius Gracchus has 
been dramatized by James Sheridan Knowles. 
It was one of his earliest efforts in dramatic 
literature, and has long been obsolete as an 
acting play. 

Gymnasium. A place among the Greeks where 
all the public exercises were performed, and 
where not only dancers and wrestlers exhib- 
ited, but where poets and philosophers re- 
peated their compositions. 

Ha des, see Ades. 

Halicarnas'sus. A maritime city in Asia Minor, 
where a mausoleum, one of the seven wonders 
of the world, was erected. It is celebrated as 
being the birthplace of Herodotus, Dionysius, 
and Heraclitus. 

Hamadry'ades. Nymphs who lived in the country 
and presided over trees. 


Hamil car. A famous Carthaginian, father of 
Hannibal. He was engaged in Sicily during 
the first Punic war. He used to say of his 
three sons that he kept three lions to devour 
the Roman power. 

Hannibal. A celebrated Carthaginian general, 
son of Hamilcar. While a child he took a 
solemn oath never to be at peace with Rome. 
His passage of the Alps with a great army 
was achieved by softening the rocks with fire 
and vinegar, so that even his armed elephants 
descended the mountains without difficulty. 
He defeated the Romans in the great battle 
of Cannae, but was subsequently conquered 
by Scipio at Zama. He died by poison taken 
from a ring in which he kept it concealed. 
This occurred in his seventieth year, about 
1 82 years b.c. 

Harmo'dius. A friend of Aristogiton who as- 
sisted in delivering his country from the tyr- 
anny of the PisistratidcE. 

Harpy'lae. The Harpies, winged monsters who 
had the face of a woman, the body of a vul- 
ture, and feet and fingers armed with claws. 
They were three in number — Aello, Ocypete, 
and Celeno. They were daughters of Nep- 
tune and Terra. 

Has drubal. A son of Hamilcar and brother of 
Hannibal. He crossed the Alps and entered 
Italy, where he was defeated by the consuls, 
M. Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. He 
was killed in the battle h.c. 207, and his head 


was sent to Hannibal. One of the finest pas- 
sages in Professor Nichol's tragedy of Han- 
nibal is the invocation over Hasdrubal's head 
at the close of the play. 

Hebe. A daughter of Jupiter and Juno. She 
was made cupbearer to the gods, but was 
dismissed from the office by Jupiter, because 
she fell down in a clumsy posture as she was 
pouring out nectar at a festival, and Gany- 
medes succeeded her as cupbearer. 

Hec ate. A daughter of Perses and Asteria. She 
was called Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, 
and Hecate or Proserpine in hell. 

Hec tor, son of King Priam and Hecuba, was the 
most valiant of all the Trojan chiefs who 
fought against the Greeks. He married An- 
dromache, the daughter of Eetion, Astyanax 
being their son. Hector was made chief of 
the Trojan forces when Troy was besieged by 
the Greeks, and it is said that thirty-one of 
the most valiant Greek chiefs were killed by 
him, but when he met Achilles he fled. 
Achilles pursued him, and Hector was killed, 
and his body dragged in triumph at the char- 
iot wheels of the conqueror. 

Hec'uba, daughter of Dymas, a Phrygian prince, 
or, according to some, of Cisseus, a Thracian 
king, was the second wnfe of Priam, king of 
Troy. When her son Paris was born, she ex- 
posed him on Mount Ida, hoping he would 
perish, as the soothsayers had predicted that 
he would be the ruin of his country. In the 


Trojan war she saw most of her children per- 
ish. After enduring many misfortunes, she 
threw herself into the sea, and was drowned. 
Hel'ena. One of the most beautiful women in the 
age in which she lived. Her beauty was so 
universally admired, even in her infancy, 
that Theseus, with his friend Pirithous, car- 
ried her away when she was ten years of age 
and concealed her with his mother, but she 
was recovered by Castor and Pollux, and re- 
stored to her native country. She married 
Menelaus, son of Atreus, but when Paris vis- 
ited Menelaus he persuaded her to fly with 
him to Troy, b.c. iigS. On this, Menelaus 
sent ambassadors to the court of Priam to de- 
mand her restitution, but in vain, and the 
result was the Trojan war. When Troy was 
taken she returned to Menelaus, and after his 
death she retired to Rhodes, where she was 
strangled by order of Polyxo, who reigned 
there. Her beauty and misfortunes have been 
a theme for the poets in all ages : one of them 
thus speaks of her : — 

" Possess'd of all those glowing cliarms, 
That fir'd the Trojan boy, 
And kindled love with war's alarms 
Around the walls of Troy." 

Hel icon. A mountain of B(£otia on the borders 
of Phocis. II was sacred to the Muses, who 
had a temple there. The fountain Hippo- 
crene flowed from this mountain. 


Heliogab alus, M. Aure lius Antoni us. A Roman 
emperor who had been priest to a divinity in 
Phoenicia. Under his sway Rome became the 
scene of cruelty and vice. He raised his 
horse to the honors of consulship, and in- 
dulged in a number of absurdities which ren- 
dered him odious to his subjects. His head 
was cut off by his soldiers a.d. 222. 
Hel'le. A daughter of Athamas and Nephele. 
She fled from her father's house to avoid the 
oppression of her mother-in-law Ino. Accord- 
ing to some accounts, she was carried through 
the air on a golden ram, when, becoming 
giddy, she fell into the sea, which received 
from her the name Hellespont. 
Hellespon'tus. A narrow strait between Europe 
and Asia, which received its name from 
Helle, who is said to have been drowned in 
it. It is celebrated as being the scene of the 
love and death of Leander. 
Heracli'tus. A celebrated Greek philosopher of 
Ephesus, who lived about 500 years before the 
Christian era. He received the appellation 
of the Obscure Philosopher and the Mourner, 
from his custom of weeping at the follies and 
frailties of human life. 
Herculaneum. A town of Campania swallowed 
up by an earthquake, produced by an eruption 
of Mount Vesuvius, a.d. 79. 
■ Hercules. A celebrated hero who, after death, 
was ranked among the gods. According to 
the ancients there were many persons of th© 


same name, but the son of Jupiter and Alc- 
•\nena, generally called the Theban, is the 
most celebrated. The birth of Hercules was 
attended with many miraculous events. Be- 
fore he was eight months old Juno sent two 
snakes to devour him, which he seized, and 
crushed them to death. He achieved a series 
of enterprises known as the "Twelve Labors 
of Hercules." These comprised the slaugh- 
ter of the Nemaean lion, the destruction of the 
Lernsean hydra, the catching of a stag having 
golden horns and remarkable for his swift- 
ness, the seizing alive a wild boar which com- 
mitted great ravages, the cleansing of the 
stables of Augias, the killing of the carnivo- 
rous birds near Lake Stymphalis, the taking 
captive a prodigious wild bull, the obtaining 
the mares of Diomedes which fed on human 
flesh, the getting possession of the girdle of 
the queen of the Amazons, the destruction of 
the monster Geryon, the obtaining the apples 
from the garden of the Hesperides, and the 
bringing to the earth the three-headed dog 
Cerberus. Besides these labors he aided the 
gods in their wars with the giants, and per- 
formed numerous difficult feats. He was con- 
ducted by Mercury to Omphale, queen of 
Lydia, whom he married, and whom he per- 
mitted to dress in his armor while he was sit- 
ting to spin with her female servants. He 
delivered Dejanira from the Centaur Nessiis, 
whom he killed. The Centaur, as he expired, 


• gaveDejanira a mystic tunic, which, m a 
jealous paroxysm, she gave to Hercules to 
put on, which he had no sooner done than he 
was seized with a desperate distemper which 
was incurable. He erected a burning pile on 
Mount ^Eta. on which he cast himself. Jupi- 
ter surrounded the burning pile with smoke, 
amidst which Hercules, after his mortal parts 
were consumed, was carried to heaven in a 
chariot drawn by four horses. 

Hermes. A name of Mercury among the Greeks. 

Herminius. A valiant Roman who defended the 
bridge with Codes against the army of Por- 
senna. Lord Macaulay, in his noble poem 
"Horatius, " alludes to him as one of the 
•'dauntless three" who defended the bridge 
against the host of Porsenna — 

" And out spake strong Herminius, 
Of Titian blood was he, 
'I will abide on thy left side, 

And keep the bridge with thee.' " 

Hermi'one. A daughter of Mars and Venus who 
married Cadmus. She was changed into a 
serpent, and placed in the El5^sian Fields. 

Hermi one. A daughter of Menelaus and Helen. 
She was privately promised in marriage to 
Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, but her 
father, ignorant of the engagement, gave her 
hand to Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, whose 
services he had experienced in the Trojan 

Hermip'pus. A freedman, disciple of Philo, in 


the reign of Adrian, by whom he was greatly 
esteemed. He wrote five books on dreams. 

Hermoc rates. A general of Syracuse, who was 
sent against the Athenians. His lenity 
toward the Athenian prisoners was regarded 
with suspicion. He was banished from Sicily, 
and was murdered on his attempt to return to 
his country. 

Hermodo'rus. A philosopher of Ephesus who is 
said to have assisted, as interpreter, the Ro- 
man decemvirs in the composition of the ten 
tables of laws which had been collected in 

Hero. A beautiful girl of Sestos greatly be- 
loved by Leander, a youth of Abydos, The 
lovers were greatly attached to each other, 
and often in the night Leander swam across 
the Hellespont to Hero in Sestos, till on one 
tempestuous night he was drowned, and Hero 
in despair threw herself into the sea and per- 

Hero'des, surnamed the Great, followed the for- 
tunes of Brutus and Cassius, and afterward 
those of Antony. He was made king of Judaea 
by the aid of Antony, and after the battle of 
Actium he was continued in power by submis- 
sion to and flattery of Augustus. He rendered 
himself odious by his cruelty, and as he knew 
his death would be a cause for rejoicing, he 
ordered a number of the most illustrious of 
his subjects to be confined and murdered di- 
rectly he expired, that there might appear to 


be grief and shedding of tears for his ovrn 
death. Herod died in the seventieth year of 
his age, after a reign of 40 years. 

Herodotus. A celebrated historian of Plalicar- 
nassus. He ranks among historians as Homer 
does among the poets and Demosthenes 
among the orators. His great work is a his- 
tory of the wars of the Persians against the 
Greeks, from the age of Cyrus to the battle 
of Mycale in the reign of Xerxes ; besides 
which it gives an account of many celebrated 
nations. A life of Homer is attributed to his 
pen, though by some the authorship is doubted. 

Hesi'odus. A celebrated poet, born at Ascia in 
Boeotia. He lived in the age of Homer, and 
obtained a poetical prize in competition with 
him, according to Varro and Plutarch. Quin- 
tilian, Philostratus, and others maintain that 
Hesiod lived before the age of Homer. He- 
siod. without possessing the sublimity of Ho- 
mer, is admired for the elegance of his diction. 

Hesi'one. A daughter of Laodemon, king of 
Troy. It was her fate to be exposed to a sea- 
monster, to whom the Trojans presented 
yearly a young girl to appease the resentment 
of Apollo and Neptune, whom Laodemon had 
offended. Hercules undertook to rescue her, 
and attacking the monster just as he was 
about to devour her, killed him with his club. 

Hesperides. Three Nymphs, daughters of Hespe- 
rus. Apollodorus mentions four, ^gle, Ery- 
thia, Vesta, and Arethusa. They were ap- 


pointed to guard the golden apples which Juno 
gave to Jupiter on the day of their marriage. 
The place where the Hesperides lived was a 
celebrated garden, abounding with delicious 
fruit, and was guarded by a dragon which 
never slept. It was one of the labors of Her- 
cules to procure some of the golden apples, 
which he succeeded in doing after slaying the 

Hieron'ymus. A tyrant of Sicily, who succeeded 
to the throne when he was fifteen years old. 
He rendered himself odious by his cruelty and 

Hieron'ymus. A Christian writer, commonly 
called St. Jerome. He was distinguished for 
his zeal against heretics. He wrote com- 
mentaries on the prophets, St. Matthew's 
Gospel, etc. He died a.d. 420 in his eightieth 

Hippar'chus. A son of Pisistratus, who succeeded 
his father, as tyrant of Athens, with his 
brother Hippias. He patronized some of the 
learned men of his age. and distinguished 
himself for his love of literature. 

Hippocrates. A celebrated physician of Cos. 
He delivered Athens from a dreadful pesti- 
lence in the beginning of the Peloponnesian 
war, for which he was rewarded with a golden 
crown. He died in his ninety-ninth year. 
B.C. 361. 

Hippocre'ne. A fountain of Boeotia, near Mount 
Helicon, sacred to the Muses. It rose from 


the ground when struck by the ieet of the 
horse Pegasus. 

Hippodami'a. A daughter of CEnomaus, king of 
Pisa, who married Pelops, son of Tantalus. 
Her father would marry her only to some one 
who should conquer him in a chariot race. 
Her beauty was great, and many were compe- 
titors for her hand, though the conditions in- 
volved death in case of defeat in the race. 
After thirteen suitors had been defeated, 
Pelops entered the lists, and by bribing the 
charioteer of CEnomaus, obtained the victory 
and married Hippodamia. 

Hippolyte. A queen of the Amazons, given in 
marriage to Theseus by Hercules. Hippoly- 
tus was their son. 

Hippolytus. Son of Theseus and Hippolyte. 
His stepmother Phaedra fell in love with him. 
He fled to the sea-shore, where, his horses 
taking fright and rushing among the rocks, 
his chariot was broken in pieces, and he was 
killed. According to some accounts he was 
restored to life by Diana. 

Hippo'nax. A Greek poet born at Ephesus, 540 
years before the Christian era. He cultivated 
satirical poetry, which was marked by its 
beauty and vigor. 

Home'rus. A celebrated Greek poet, the most 
ancient of all the profane writers. The age 
in which he lived is not known, though some 
suppose it to be about 168 years after the 
Trojan war. Uncertainty prevails, also, as 


to the place of his nativity, seven cities claim- 
ing to be thus honored. These are Smyrna, 
Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, 
and Athena?. In his two famous poems, the 
Iliad and Odyssey, he has displayed the most 
consummate knowledge of human nature, and 
rendered himself immortal by the sublimity 
and elegance of his poetry. In the Iliad he 
gives a narrative of the siege of Troy, and the 
Odyssey deals with the wanderings of Ulysses 
after the fall of the city. Byron, in "The 
Bride of Abydos, " calls him 

" The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle," 

thus assuming Chios to be his birthplace, Scio 
being the modern name of the place. Dry- 
den, in his well-known lines commencing 

" Three poets in three distant ages born," 

ranks him with Virgil and Milton, giving 
Homer the palm of "loftiness of thought." 
One of the old poets thus alludes to his verse : — 

" Read Homer once, and you can read no more, 
For all books else appear so mean and poor; 
Verse will seem prose; but still persist to read, 
And Homer will be all the books you need." 

Hono'rius. An emperor of the Western Empire 
of Rome, who succeeded his father, Theodo- 
sius the Great. He conquered his enemies 
by the ability of his generals, and suffered 
his people to be governed by ministers who 
took advantage of his indolence and indiffer- 
ence. He died a.d. 423. 


Hora tii. Three brave Romans, born at the same 
time, who fought against the three Curiatii 
about 667 years before Christ. At the begin- 
ning of the fight two of the Koratii were 
killed, and the surviving one pretended to fly, 
thus separating his antagonists as they pur- 
sued him, and then, attacking them singly, 
he slew them all. 

Hora'tius, Q. Flac'cus. A celebrated poet born 
at Venusia. His rising talents obtained the 
attention of Virgil and Varius, who recom- 
mended him to the care of Maecenas and Au- 
gustus, the celebrated patrons of literature. 
Under this fostering patronage Horace gave 
himself up to indolence and pleasure. He 
was warm in his friendships, and if he at any 
time gave offense, he was ready to make any 
concession to effect a reconciliation. In his 
satires and epistle he displays much wit and 
satirical humor. He died in his fifty-seventh 
^-ear, b.c. 8. 

Horatius. See Cocles. 

Horten'sius, Q. A celebrated orator who began 
to distinguish himself in the Roman Forum 
when he was nineteen years old. Cicero 
speaks eulogistically of his oratorical powers, 
and of his retentive memory. Quintilian 
alludes to his orations in terms of high com- 

Hyacin'thus. A son of Amyclas and Diomede, 
greatly beloved by Apollo and Zephyrus. He 
was accidentally killed by Apollo, who 


changed his blood into a flower which bore his 

Hy'bla. A mountain in Sicily, famous for the 
odoriferous herbs which grew on it. It was 
noted for its honey. 

Hydra. A celebrated monster which infested the 
neighborhood of Lake Lernain Peloponnesus. 
It was one of the labors of Hercules to destroy 
the monster, which he effected with the aid 
of lolas. 

Hyge'ia. The goddess of health, daughter of 
^sculapius. She was held in great venera- 
tion among the ancients. 

Hymenae us or Hy men, the god of m.arriage among 
the Greeks, was the son of Bacchus and Venus, 
or, according to some, of Apollo and one of 
the Muses. 

Hymet'tus. A mountain of Attica, about two 
miles from Athens, famous for its bees and 

Hyperi on. A son of Coelus and Terra, wdio mar- 
ried Thea. Aurora was their daughter. Hy- 
perion is often used by the poets to signify 
the sun ; as, for instance, by Shakspeare in 
"Titus Andronicus" (act v. sc. 2) — 

"Even from Hyperion's rising in the east. 
Until his very downfall in the sea." 

Also in "Troilus and Cressida" and other of 
Shakspeare's plays, the same license is used. 
Hypermnes'tra. Une of the Danaides, who were 
the fifty daughters of Danaus. She was 


ordered by her father to murder her husband 
Lynceus on the night of their marriage, which 
she refused to do. Danaus wished to punish 
her for her disobedience, but afterward for- 
gave her, and left his kingdom at his death 
to Lynceus. 
Hypsipyle. A queen of Lemnos, daughter of 
Thoas. During her reign, Venus, whose 
altars had been slighted, punished the Lem- 
nian women by causing their husbands' af- 
fections to be estranged from them. This 
enraged the women, and they put to death 
their male relations, except in the case of 
Hypsipyle, who spared her father Thoas, 

Ic'arus. A son of Daedalus, who, with his father, 
took a winged flight from Crete to escape the 
anger of Minos. His flight was too high, and 
thus the sun melted the wax which cemented 
his wings, and he fell into the sea and was 

Idom eneus succeeded his father Deucalion on 
the throne of Crete, and accompanied the 
Greeks to the Trojan war, during which he 
rendered himself famous for his valor. On 
his voyage home, being caught in a great 
tempest, he vowed to Neptune that if he es- 
caped he would make an offering to the god 
of the first living creature he saw on his ar- 
rival at the Cretan shore. He escaped the 
storm, and the first to meet him on his land- 
ing was his son. He performed his vow, and 


became so odious to his subjects that he had 
to leave his dominions. 

Igna tius. A bishop of Antioch torn to pieces by- 
lions in the amphitheater at Rome a.d, 107. 
His works consisted of letters to the Ephe- 
sians, Romans, etc. He zealously supported 
the doctrine of the divinity of Christ. 

rius, fourth king of Troy, was son of Tros by 
Callirrhoe. He married Eurydice, the daugh- 
ter of Adrastus. He embellished the city of 
Ilium, called also Troy from his father Tros. 

I'no. A daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, who 
nursed Bacchus." She married Athamas, king 
of Thebes, after he had divorced Nephele. 

I'o, a daughter of Inachus, was a priestess of 
Juno at Argos. Jupiter changed her into a 
beautiful heifer, and eventually restored her 
to her own form. She was greatly persecuted 
by Juno. She married Telegonus, king of 
Egypt, or Osiris according to others, and 
treated her subjects with such kindness that 
after death she received divine honors, and 
was worshiped under the name of Isis. 

Tolas or lola'us. A son of Iphiclus, king of 
Thessaly, who assisted Hercules in conquer- 
ing the Hydra; he burnt with a hot iron the 
place where the monster's heads had been cut 
off to prevent their re-growth. 

Iph iclus. A son of Amphitryon and Alcmena. 
twin brother of Hercules. As the children 
were cradled together, Juno, jealous of Her- 
cules, sent two large serpents to destroy him. 


At the sight of the snakes Iphiclus showed 
great alarm, but Hercules seized them, one in 
each hand, and squeezed them to death. 

Iphicrates. A celebrated general of Athens, who, 
though son of a shoemaker, rose to the high- 
est offices in the state. He made war against 
the Thracians, and assisted the Persian king 
against Egypt. 

Iphigeni'a. A daughter of Agamemnon and Cly- 
temnestra. When the Greeks, going to the 
Trojan war, were detained at Aulis by con- 
trary winds, they were informed by a sooth- 
sayer that to appease the gods they must sac- 
rifice Iphigenia to Diana. As the fatal knife 
was about to be plunged into her, Iphigenia 
suddenly disappeared, and a goat of great 
beauty was found in the place where she had 
stood ready for the sacrifice. 

Iph'itus. A son of Eurytus, king of CEchalia. 
When his father had promised his daughter 
lole to any one who could excel him or his 
sons in drawing the bow, Hercules accepted 
the challenge and was victorious. Eurytus, 
however, refused to fulfil the compact by giv- 
ing his daughter to the conqueror. After- 
ward some oxen were stolen from Eurytus, 
and Iphitus was sent in quest of them. In 
his search he met Hercules, who aided him in 
seeking the lost animals, but on recollecting 
the faithlessness of Eurytus he killed Iphitus. 

Irens'us. A native of Greece, disciple of Poly- 
carp, and bishop of Lyons. He wrote on dif= 


fe rent subjects, and suffered martyrdom a.d. 


Iris. One of the Oceanides, messenger of the 
gods, and more particularly of Juno. Her 
office was to cut the thread which seemed to 
detain the soul of those who were expiring. 
She is the same as the rainbow. 

I'sis. A celebrated deity of the Egyptians, 
daughter of Saturn and Rhea, according to 
Diodorus of Sicily. Some suppose her to be 
the same as lo, who was changed into a cow, 
and restored to her human form in Egypt, 
where she taught agriculture, and governed 
the people with mildness and equity, for 
which she received divine honors after her 

Isoc'rates. A celebrated orator, son of a musical 
instrument maker at Athens. He opened a 
school of eloquence at Athens, where he was 
distinguished for the number, character, and 
fame of his pupils. He was intimate with 
Philip of Macedon, but the aspiring ambition 
of Philip displeased Isocrates, and the defeat 
of the Athenians at Chseronea had such an 
effect on him that he did not long survive it. 
He died, after being four days without taking 
any aliment, in his ninety-ninth year, about 
338 years before Christ. He was honored 
after death by the erection of a brazen statue 
to his memory by Timotheus, one of his 
pupils, and Aphareus, his adopted son. Mil- 
ton, in one of his sonnets, speaks of him as 


"that old man eloquent" when alluding to his 
death as being caused by the news of the bat- 
tle of Chaeronea. 

rtys. A son of Tereus, king of Thrace, and 
Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. 
He was killea oy nis mother when he was six 
years old, and served up to his father to be 
eaten by him. He was changed into a pheas- 
ant, his mother into a swallow, and his father 
into an owl. 

Ixion. A king of Thessaly, son of Phlegias, or, 
according to Hyginus, of Leontes, or, accord- 
ing to Diodorus, of Antion and Perimela. 
Jupiter carried him to heaven and placed him 
at the table of the gods, where he became 
enamored wnth Juno, which so incensed Jupiter 
that he banished him from heaven, and ordered 
Mercury to tie him to a wheel in hell which 
continually whirled round, keeping Ixion in 
perpetual torture. 

Janus. An ancient king who reigned in Italy. 
He was a native of Thessaly, and, according 
to some writers, a son of Apollo. He built a 
town which he called Janiculum. Some au- 
thors make him to have been son of Coelus and 
Hecate. He is represented with two faces, 
because he was acquainted with the past and 
future. His temple was always open in time 
of war, and was shut when peace existed. 

Jap'etus. A son of Coelus or Titan and Terra. 
who married Asia, or, according to some 


writers, Clymene. The Greeks looked on 
him as the father of all mankind. 

Jason. A celebrated hero, son of .^son and 
Alcimedes. His education was entrusted to 
the Centaur Chiron. The greatest feat re- 
corded of him is his voyage in the Argo to 
Colchis to obtain the Golden Fleece, which, 
aided by Juno, he succeeded in doing. Medea, 
daughter of ^etes, king of Colchis, fell in love 
with Jason. She was a powerful magician, 
and on Jason having vowed eternal fidelity to 
her, she gave him charms to protect him from 
danger. After securing the Fleece, Jason set 
sail from the country with his wife Medea. 
After some years he became enamored with 
Glauce, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, 
whom he married, having divorced Medea. 
This cruel act was revenged by Medea, who 
destroyed her children in the presence of their 
father. Jason is said to have been killed by 
a beam which fell on his head as he was re- 
posing by the side of the ship which had borne 
him to Colchis. 

Jocas'ta. A daughter of Menoeceus, who married 
Laius, king of Thebes, CEdipus being their 
son. She afterward married CEdipus with- 
out knowing who he was, and on the discov- 
ery she hanged herself. By some mytholo- 
gists she is called Epicasta. 

Jose'phus, Fla'vius. A celebrated Jew, born in 
Jerusalem, who signalized himself in a siege 
conducted by Vespasian and Titus in a small 


town in Judaea. He was present at the siege 
of Jerusalem by Titus, and received all the 
sacred books which it contained from the con- 
queror's hands. He wrote a history of the 
wars of the Jews in Syriac, and afterwards 
translated it into Greek. He also wrote a 
work, which he divided into twenty books, on 
Jewish antiquities. He died a.d. 93, in his 
fifty -sixth year. 
Jovia nus, Fla vius Clau dius. A native of Pan- 
nonia elected emperor of Rome by the soldiers 
after the death of Julian. He refused the 
purple at first, but on being assured that his 
subjects were favorably disposed toward 
Christianity he accepted the crown. He died 
about seven months after assuming the su- 
preme power, being found in bed suffocated 
by the vapors of charcoal which had been 
lighted in his room, a.d. 364. 
Ju'ba. A king of Numidia and Mauritania who 
favored the cause of Pompey against Julius 
Ciesar. He defeated Curio, whom Csesar had 
sent to Africa, and after the battle of Phar- 
salia he joined his forces to those of Scipio. 
He was conquered in a battle at Thapsus, and 
killed himself. His kingdom became a 
Roman province, of which Sallust was the 
first governor. 
Ju'ba, the second of that name, was led captive to 
Rome to give lustre to the triumph of Caesar. 
He wrote a history of Rome which was often 
commended and quoted by the ancients. 


Jugur tha. A distinguished Numldian who went 
with a body of troops to the assistance of 
Scipio who was besieging Numantia. Jugur- 
tha endeared himself to the Roman general 
by his bravery and activity. His uncle Mi- 
cipsa appointed him successor to the throne, 
with his two sons Adherbal and Hiempsal, the 
latter of whom was slain by Jugurtha, and 
the former had to fly to Rome for safety. 
Csecilius Metellus was sent against Jugurtha, 
who was betrayed, and delivered into the 
hands of the Romans. He died in prison, 
B.C. io6. 

Ju'lia. A daughter of Julius Caesar and Cornelia, 
famous for her virtues and personal charms. 
She was obliged by her father to divorce her- 
self from her first husband to marry Pompey 
the Great, with the object of cementing the 
friendship between him and her father. 

Ju'lia. Daughter of Augustus, remarkable for 
her beauty, genius, and vices. Her father 
gave her in marriage to Marcellus, after 
whose death she united herself to Agrippa, 
and again becoming a widow she married 
Tiberius. Her conduct now became so un- 
seemly that she was banished to a small island 
on the coast of Campania, where she was 
starved to death. 

Ju'lia. A daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, 
born at Lesbos, a.d. 17. She married M. 
Vinucius, a senator, when she was sixteen 
years old. She was banished on suspicion of 


conspiracy by her brother Caligula. She was 
notorious for her licentious conduct, and was 
put to death when she was about twenty-four 
years of age. 

Ju'lia. A celebrated woman born in Phoenicia. 
She applied herself to the study of philosophy, 
and was conspicuous for her mental as well 
as her personal charms. She came to Rome, 
where she married Septimius Severus, who 
was afterward invested with the purple. She 
was also called Domna. 

Julia'nus. A son of Julius Constantius, the 
brother of Constantine the Great, born in 
Constantinople. The massacre which at- 
tended the elevation of the sons of Constan- 
tine to the throne nearly proved fatal to Julian 
and his brother Gallus. The two brothers 
were privately educated and taught the doc- 
trine of the Christian religion — which after- 
ward Julian disavowed, and in consequence 
of this the term "Apostate" is generally af- 
fixed to his name. He died, a.d. 363, in his 
thirty-second year. His last moments were 
spent in a conversation with a philosopher 
about the immortality of the soul. Julian's 
character has been admired by some writers, 
but generally he is censured for his apostasy. 

Ju'no. A celebrated deity among the ancients, 
daughter of Saturn and Ops. Jupiter married 
her. and the nuptials were celebrated with the 
greatest solemnity in the presence of all the 
gods. By her marriage with Jupiter, Juno 


became the queen of all the gods, and mis- 
tress of heaven and earth. She presided over 
marriage, and patronized those of her sex who 
were distinguished for virtuous conduct. 
Paris gave her great offense by giving the 
golden apple, as an award to beaut}', to Venus 
instead of herself. 

Ju'piter. The chief of all the gods of the an- 
cients. According to Varro there were three 
hundred persons of that name. To him of 
Crete, who passed for the son of Saturn and 
Ops, the actions of the rest have been attrib- 
uted. Jupiter was educated in a cave on 
Mount Ida, in Crete, and fed with the milk of 
the goat Amaltha^a. While he was very 
young he made war on the Titans, whom he 
conquered. The beginning of his reign in the 
supernal regions was interrupted by the re- 
bellion of the giants who were sons of the 
Earth, and who were desirous of revenging 
the death of the Titans, but by the aid of 
Hercules Jupiter overpowered them. Jupiter 
married Metis, Themis, Ceres, Euronyme, 
Mnemosyne, Latona, and Juno. His worship 
was universal : he was the Amnion of the 
Africans, the Belus of Babylon, and the Osiris 
of Egypt. 

Juvena'lis, D. Junius. A poet born at Aquinum 
in Italy. lie came to Rome at an early age. 
where he applied himself to the writing of 
satires, some of which are extant. He died 
in the reign of Trajan a.d. 128. His writings 


. . are distinguished by a lively style, but abound 
with ill humor. 

Labe'rius, J. Dec'imus. A Roman knight famous 
for his skill in writing pantomimes. Csesar 
made him appear on the stage in one of his 
plays, which he resented by throwing out 
aspersions on Csesar during the performance, 
and b) warning the audience against tyranny. 

Lach esis. One of the Parcae, or Fates. She 
presided over futurity, and was represented 
as spinning the thread of life, or according to 
some as holding the spindle. 

Laertes. A king of Ithaca who married Anticlea, 
daughter of Autolycus. Ulysses was their 
son, and succeeded him on the throne, Laertes 
retiring to the country, and devoting his time 
to gardening, in which employment he was 
found by Ulysses on his return from the Tro- 
jan war, after twenty years' absence. 

La'gus. A Macedonian of mean extraction, who 
married Arsinoe, daughter of Meleager. 
On the birth of a child it was exposed in the 
woods by Lagus, but an eagle preserved its 
life by feeding and sheltering it with her 
wings. The infant was afterward known as 
King Ptolemy the First of Egypt. 

Lais. A woman of immoral character, daughter 
of Timandra and Alcibiades. Diogenes, the 
Cynic, was one of her admirers, and gained her 
heart. She went to Thessaly, where the wo- 
men, jealous of her charms, assassinated her, 


Laoc oon. A priest of Apollo who in the Trojan 
war was opposed to the admission of the 
wooden horse to the city. For this, as a 
punishment, two enormous serpents were sent 
to attack him, which they did while, accom- 
panied by his two sons, he was offering a sac- 
rifice to Neptune. The serpents coiled round 
him and his sons, and crushed them to death. 
Lord Byron ("Childe Harold," canto iv.) thus 
alludes to the Laocoon group in marble in the 
Vatican : 

" Or, turning to the Vatican, go see 

Laocoon's torture, dignifying pain — 
A father's love and mortal's agony 

With an immortal's patience blending. Vain 

The struggle; vain, against the coiling strain 
And gripe, and deepening of the dragon's grasp, 

The old man's clench; the long, envenom'd chain 
Rivets the living links— the enormous asp 
Enforces pang on pang, and stifles gasp on gasp." 

Laom'edon. Son of Ilus, and king of Troy. He 
married Strynio, called by some Placia or 
Leucippe. Podarces, afterward known as 
Priam, was their son. Laomedon built the 
walls of Troy, in which he was assisted by 
Apollo and Neptune. 

Lap ithus. A son of Apollo and Stilbe. He 
married Orsinome, Phorbas and Periphas 
being their children, to whose numerous de- 
scendants was given the name Lapithae, a 
number of whom attended the nuptials of 
Pirithous with Hippodamia, the daughter of 
Adrastus, king of Argos. The Centaurs also 


attended the festivity, and quarreled with the 
Lapithse, which resulted in blows and slaugh- 
ter. Many of the Centaurs were slain, and 
they were at last obliged to retire. 

Lares. Gods of inferior power at Rome, who 
presided over houses and families. They 
were two in number, sons of Mercury and 

Lati'nus. A son of Faunus and Marica. king of 
the Aborigines in Italy, who from him were 
called Latini. 

Lato'na. A daughter of Coeus, the Titan, and 
Phoebe. She was admired for her beauty 
by Jupiter. Juno made Latona the object of 
her vengeance, and sent the serpent Python 
to persecute her. 

Lean'der. A youth of Abydos. He was passion- 
ately in love with Hero, a young girl of 
Sestos. He was in the habit of swimming 
across the Hellespont to visit her, in doing 
which, on a tempestuous night, he was 
drowned. Lord Byron performed the same 
feat in 1810, an exploit which he has cele- 
brated in verse in his occasional pieces. He 
expresses surprise that, as the truth of Lean- 
der's story had been questioned, no one had 
hitherto tested its practicability. 

Le'da. A daughter of king Thespius and Eury- 
themis, who married Tyndarus. king of 
Sparta. She is famous for her intrigue with 
Jupiter. She was the mother of Pollux, 
Helena, Castor, and Clytemnestra. She is 


said to have received the name- of Nemesis 
after death. 

Lem'ures. The manes of the dead. The an- 
cients supposed that after death the departed 
souls wandered over the world and disturbed 
the peace of its inhabitants. 

Leon'idas. A celebrated king of Lacedsemon 
who went to oppose Xerxes, king of Persia, 
who had invaded Greece with a vast army. 
A great battle was fought at Thermopylae, the 
entire army of Leonidas consisting of 300 men 
who refused to abandon him. For a time this 
small army resisted the vast legions of Xerxes, 
till at length a traitor conducted a detachment 
of Persians by a secret path to the rear of 
Leonidas, when his soldiers were cut to pieces, 
one only of the 300 escaping. The late Rev. 
George Croly, author of "Salathiel," wrote a 
poem, called "The Death of Leonidas," 
which, after describing in vivid language the 
determined valor of the Greeks, thus con- 
cludes : 

" Thus fought the Greek of old; 
Thus will he fight again: 
Shall not the self-same mould 
Bring forth the self-same men?" 

Lepi'dus, M. ^Emilius. A celebrated Roman, 
one of the triumvirs with Augustus and An- 
tony. He was of an illustrious family, and, 
like many of his contemporaries, remarkable 
for ambition. He was unable to maintain his 
position as triumvir; and, resigning power, 
he sank into obscurity. 


Le'the. One of the rivers of hell, whose waters 
were imbibed by the souls of the dead which 
had been for a certain period confined in Tar- 
tarus. Those who drank of this river forgot 
whatever they had previously known. In 
this sense the word is constantly used by the 
poets. Thus Shakspeare (Henry IV. part ii. 
act V. scene 2) says : 

" May this be washed in Lethe and for.e:otten." 
Leucip'pus. A celebrated philosopher of Abdera, 
about 428 years before Christ. He was a dis- 
ciple of Zeno. His life was written by Diog- 
enes. There were several others of the same 
Leuc tra. A village in Boeotia, famous for the 
victory which Epaminondas, the Theban gen- 
eral, obtained over the superior force of Cle- 
ombrotus, king of Sparta, b.c. 371. 
Licinius, C. A tribune of the people celebrated 
for his intrigues and ability. He was a ple- 
beian, and was the first of that class that was 
raised to the office of master of the horse to 
the dictator. There were a number of other 
Romans of the same name. 
Liv'ius, Ti'tus. A native of Padua, a celebrated 
historian. He passed the chief part of his 
time at Naples and Rome, but more particu- 
larly at the court of Augustus, who liberally 
patronized him. The name of Livy is ren- 
dered immortal by his history of the Roman 
empire. The merit of this history is admitted 
by all, and the high rank which Livy holds 


among historians is undisputed. Lord Byron 
speaks of it in his "Childe Harold" as "Livy s 
picture page. " 

Liv ius, Androni cus. A dramatic poet Avho flour- 
ished at Rome about 240 years before the 
Christian era. 

Longi nus, Dionys ius Cas sius. A celebrated 
Greek philosopher of Athens. He was pre- 
ceptor of the Greek language, and afterward 
minister, to Zenobia, the famous queen of 

Luca nus, M. Annae us. A native of Corduba in 
Spain. At an early age he went to Rome, 
where his rising talents recommended him to 
the emperor Nero. He unwisely entered into 
a poetical contest with Nero, in which he ob- 
tained an easy victory, which greatly offended 
the emperor. After this Lucan was exposed 
to much annoyance from Nero, and was in- 
duced to join in a conspiracy against him, on 
which he was condemned to death, the mode 
of which he had the liberty of choosing. He 
decided to have his veins opened in a warm 
bath, and died quoting some lines from his 
"Pharsalia. " Of all his works none but the 
" Pharsalia" remains. 

Lucia nus. A celebrated writer of Samosata. 
His works are numerous, consisting chiefly of 
dialogues written with much force. He died 
A.i). 180, being, as some say, torn in pieces by 
dogs for his impiety. 

Lu cifer. The name of the planet Venus, or 


morning star. It is called Lucifer when ap- 
pearing in the morning before the sun, but 
when it appears after its setting it is called 

Lucil ius, C. A Roman knight, who is regarded 
as the first satirical writer among the Romans. 
Of thirty satires which he wrote only a few 
verses remain. He died at Naples B.C. 103. 

Lucilius Luci'nus. A famous Roman who fled 
with Brutus from the battle of Philippi. He 
was taken prisoner, but the conquerors spared 
his life. 

Luci na. A daughter of Jupiter and Juno. She 
was the goddess who presided over the birth 
of children. 

Lucre tia. A celebrated Roman lady, daughter 
of Lucretius and wife of Tarquinius Colla- 
tinus. A number of young noble Romans at 
Ardea, among whom were Collatinus and the 
sons of Tarquin the Proud, were discussing 
the virtues of their wives at home, and it was 
agreed to go to Rome to ascertain how their 
wives employed themselves in their husbands' 
absence in the camp. While the wives of the 
others were indulging in feasting and dissipa- 
tion, Lucretia was found in her house em- 
ploying herself with her servants in domestic 
duties. She was brutally treated by Sextus 
Tarquin, a relative of Collatinus, and stabbed 
herself. This was the signal for a rebellion, 
the result being the expulsion of the Tarquins 
from Rome 


Lucretius, Ca'rus T. A celebrated Roman poet 
and philosopher. The tenets of Epicurus 
were embraced by him, and were explained 
and elucidated in a poem which he wrote, 
De rerum fiaturd. This poem is distin- 
guished by genius and elegance, but the doc- 
trines it inculcates have an atheistical tend- 
ency. Lucretius is said to have destroyed 
himself b.c. 54. 

Lucul'lus, Lucius Licin ius. A Roman noted 
for his fondness of luxury and for his military 
abilities. He was born about 115 years be 
fore the Christian era, and distinguished him 
self by his proficiency in eloquence and phil 
osophy. He was soon advanced to the con 
sulship, and entrusted with the managemen 
of the Mithridatic war, in which he displayec 
his military talents. 

Lycur'gus. A celebrated lawgiver of Sparta, son 
of King Eunomus and brother to Polydectes. 
He succeeded his brother on the Spartan 
throne. In the laws which he enacted he 
maintained a just equilibrium between the 
throne and the people ; he banished luxury 
and encouraged the useful arts, and adopted 
a number of measures having for their object 
the well-being of the people. Lycurgus has 
been compared with Solon, the celebrated 
legislator of Athens. 

Lyn'ceus, son of Aphareus, was one of the hunt- 
ers of the Calydonian boar, and one of the 
Argonauts. He was so sharp-sighted that he 


could see through the earth and distinguish 
objects at a great distance from him. There 
was another person of the same name who 
married Hypermnestra, daughter of Danaus. 

Lysan'der. A celebrated general of Sparta in the 
last years of the Peloponnesian war. He 
drew Ephesus from the interest of Athens, 
and gained the friendship of Cyrus the 
younger. He gave battle to the Athenian 
fleet, and destroyed it all except three ships. 
In this battle, which was fought 405 years be- 
fore the Christian era, the Athenians lost a 
great number of men, and in consequence of 
it forfeited their influence over neighboring 
states. Lysander was killed in battle 394 
years k.c. 

Lysim achus. A son of Agathocles, who was 
one of the generals of Alexander. After the 
death of that monarch Lysimachus made him- 
self master of Thrace, where he built a town 
which he called Lysimachia. 

Lysip'pus. A famous statuary of vSicyon. He 
applied himself to painting, but he was born 
to excel in sculpture. He lived about 325 
years before the Christian era, in the age of 
Alexander the Great. 

Macro'bius. A Latin writer who died a.d. 415. 
He has rendered himself famous for a com- 
position called Saturmilia, a miscellaneous 
collection of antiquarian and critical literature. 

Msander. A celebrated river of Asia Minor 


flowing into the ..^gean Sea. It is famous 
among the poets for its windings, and from 
it the application of the word "meandering" 
to a winding stream has become proverbial. 

Maece nas, or Mecae nas, C. Clinius, a celebrated 
Roman knight, has rendered himself im- 
mortal by his liberal patronage of learned 
men. To the interference of Maecenas, Virgil 
was indebted for the restitution of his lands. 
Maecenas, according to the received opinion, 
wrote a history of animals and a journal of 
the life of Augustus. Virgil dedicated his 
Georgics to him, as did Horace his Odes. 

Ma nes. A name applied by the ancients to the 
soul when departed from the body. 

Man lius, Marcus. A celebrated Iloman who, at 
an early age, distinguished himself for valor. 
When Rome was taken by the Gauls, he, with 
a body of his countrymen, fled to the Capitol, 
which he defended when it was surprised in 
the night by the enemy. This gained him 
the surname of Capitoliniis, and the geese 
which had awakened him to action by their 
clamor were afterward held sacred among 
the Romans. 

Mara thon. A village of Attica, celebrated for 
the victory which the Athenians and Platseans, 
under the command of Miltiades, gained over 
the Persian army, 490 h.c. Lord Byron 
("Don Juan," canto ill. verse 86) alludes to 
Marathon, and the famous battle fought 
there ;— 


" The mountains look on Marathon, 

And Marathon looks on the sea; 
And, musing there an hour alone, 

I dream'd that Greece might still be free; 
For, standing on the Persians' grave, 
I could not deem myself a slave." 

Marcel lus, Mar cus Clau dius. A famous Roman 
general. He was the first Roman who ob- 
tained some advantage over Hannibal. He 
conquered Syracuse, with the spoils from 
which he adorned Rome. He was killed in 
battle in his fifth consulship. 

Marcel'lus. A Roman who distinguished himself 
in the civil wars of Caesar and Pompey by his 
firm attachment to the latter. He was ban- 
ished by Caesar, but was afterwards recalled 
at the request of the Senate. Pope ("Essay 
on Man," epistle iv.) has a couplet referring 
to him : — 

" And more true joy Marcellus exil'd feels, 
Than Caesar with a senate at his heels." 

There were some other Romans of the same 
name, of minor repute. 

Mardo'nius. A general in the army of Xerxes 
who was defeated in the battle of Plataea, 
where he was slain, B.C. 479. 

Ma rius, C. A celebrated Roman who signalized 
himself under Scipio at the siege of Xumantia. 
He was appointed to finish the war against 
Jugurtha, who was defeated and betrayed into 
the hands of the Romans. After this new 
honors awaited Marius. He was elected 


consul, and was sent against the Teutones. 
The war was prolonged, and Marius was a 
third and fourth time invested with the con- 
sulship. At length two engagements were 
fought, and the Teutones were defeated, a 
vast number of them being left dead on the 
battle-fields. After many vicissitudes Marius 
died, B.C. 86, directly after he had been hon- 
ored with the consulship for the seventh time. 
There were a number of others of the same 
name, but of minor note. 

Mars, the god of war, was the son of Jupiter and 
Juno, or of Juno alone, according to Ovid. 
The loves of Mars and Venus are greatly cele- 
brated. On one occasion, while in each 
other's conipany, Vulcan spread a net round 
them, from which they could not escape with- 
out assistance. They were thus exposed to 
the ridicule of the gods till Neptune induced 
Vulcan to set them at liberty. During the 
Trojan war Mars interested himself on the 
side of the Trojans, and 'defended the favor- 
ites of Venus with great determination. 

Mar'syas. A celebrated piper of Cclajne in 
Phrygia. He challenged Apollo to a trial of 
skill in music, which challenge was accepted, 
the Muses being appointed umpires. The 
palm of victory was awarded to Apollo, who 
tied his antagonist to a tree and flayed him. 

Martia'lis, Marcus Valerius. A native of Spain 
who came to Rome when he was about twenty 
years old, where he became n<;ticeable by his 


poetical genius. Martial wrote fourteen books 
of epigrams and died in the seventy-fifth year 
of his age. 

Masinis'sa. A king of a small part of Africa, 
who at first assisted the Carthaginians in their 
wars against Rome, but who subsequently be- 
came an ally of the Romans. After his de- 
feat of Syphax he married Sophonisba, the 
wife of Syphax, which gave offense to the 
Roman general, Scipio, on which Masinissa 
induced Sophonisba to end her life by poison. 
In the battle of Zama, Masinissa greatly con- 
tributed to the defeat of Hannibal. He died 
in his ninety-seventh year, 149 years before 
the Christian era. 

Mauso lus. A kingof Caria. His wife Artemisia 
was very disconsolate at his death, and erected 
one of the grandest monuments of antiquity 
to perpetuate his memory. This famous 
building, which was deemed to be one of the 
seven wonders of the world, was called 
"Mausoleum," which name has been since ap- 
plied to other grand sepulchral monuments. 

Maximi'nus, Ca'ius Ju'lius Ve'rus, was the son of 
a peasant of Thrace. He entered the Roman 
armies, where he gradually rose till he was 
proclaimed emperor a.d. 235. He ruled with 
great cruelty, and was eventually killed by 
his own soldiers. He was of immense size 
and strength, and was able to break the hard- 
est stones between his fingers. 

Medea. A celebrated magician, daughter of 


-(Eetes, king of Colchis, and niece of Cuxe. 
When Jason came to Colchis in quest of the 
Golden Fleece. Medea fell in love with him, 
and they exchanged oaths of fidelity, and 
when he had overcome all the difficulties 
which he had to encounter, Medea embarked 
with him for Greece. She lived in Corinth 
with her husband Jason for ten years, with 
much conjugal happiness, when he became 
enamored with Glance, daughter of Creon, 
king of Corinth. To avenge herself on Jason 
she caused the destruction of Glauce, and 
killed her two children in his presence. 
Medusa. One of the three Gorgons. daughter of 
Phorcys and Ceto. She was the only one of 
the Gorgons subject to mortality. She was 
celebrated for her personal charms and the 
beauty of her hair, which Minerva changed 
into serpents. According to Apollodorus and 
others, the Gorgons were born with snakes on 
their heads instead of hair, and with yellow 
wings and brazen hands. Perseus rendered 
himself famous by his conquest of Medusa. 
He cut off her head and placed it on the aegis 
of Minerva. The head had the power of 
changing those who looked at it into stone. 
Medusa, as we are informed by Lord Lytton, 
was an expression applied to Mary Queen of 
Scots in her own day, and in his brilliant 
poem, "The Last Days of Queen Elizabeth," 
he speaks of the unfortunate queen as 
" Thou soft Medusa of the fated line." 


Melea ger. A celebrated hero of antiquity who 
signalized himself in the Argonautic expedi- 
tion, and especially by killing the Calydonian 
boar, a famous event in mythological history. 

Melpomene. One of the Muses, daughter of 
Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over 
tragedy. She is generally represented as a 
young woman wearing a buskin and holding 
a dagger in her hand. 

Mem non. A king of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus 
and Aurora. He came with ten thousand men 
to assist Priam in the Trojan war, where he 
behaved with great courage, and killed Anti- 
lochus, Nestor's son, on which Nestor chal- 
lenged Memnon to fight, but he refused on 
account of the great age of the challenger ; 
but he fought Achilles, who killed him. A 
statue was erected in his honor which had the 
property of uttering a melodious sound every 
day at sunrise. Tennyson, in his "Palace of 
Art," alludes to this statue thus : — 

" As morn from Memnon drew 
Rivers of melodies." 

Menander. A celebrated comic poet of Athens, 
educated under Theophrastus. He was uni- 
versally esteemed by the Greeks. He wrote 
io3 comedies, of which only a few fragments 

Menela'us. A king of Sparta, brother to 
Agamemnon. He married Helen, the most 
beautiful woman of her time. Paris, having 
arrived in Sparta in the absence of Menelaus, 


persuaded her to elope with him. which was 
the cause of the Trojan war. In the tenth 
year of the war Helen, it is said, obtained the 
forgiveness of Menelaus, with whom she re- 
turned to Sparta, where, shortly after his re- 
turn, he died. 

Mene nius Agrip'pa. A celebrated Roman who 
appeased the Roman populace in the infancy 
of the consular government by repeating to 
them the well-known fable of the belly and 
limbs. He lived B.C. 495. 

Menip'pus. A Cynic philosopher of Phoenicia. 
He was originally a slave, and, obtaining his 
liberty, became notorious as a usurer. He 
wrote thirteen books of satires. 

Mentor. A faithful friend of Ulysses, and guide 
and instructor of his son, Telemachus. The 
term Mentor has become proverbial as applied 
to any one who is an educator of youth. 

Mercu'rius. A celebrated god of antiquity, called 
Hermes by the (ireeks. He was the mes- 
senger of the gods, and conducted the souls of 
the dead into the infernal regions. He pre- 
sided over orators, merchants, and was also 
the god of thieves. The invention of the lyre 
is ascribed to him. This he gave to Apollo, 
and received in exchange theCaduceus. which 
the god of poetry used to drive the flocks of 
King Admetus. 

Mer ope. One of the Atlantides. She married 
Sisyphus, son of ^olus, and was changed into 
a constellation. 


Me'rops. A king of the island of Cos, who mar- 
ried Clymene, one of the Oceanides. He was 
changed into an eagle, and placed among the 

Messali'na, Valeria, was notorious for her vices. 
She married the emperor Claudius, who, 
wearied with her misconduct, cited her to ap- 
pear before him and reply to the accusations 
which were brought against her, on which she 
attempted to destroy herself, but failing to do 
so, was slain by one of the tribunes who had 
been sent to summon her. 

Metelli. The surname of the family of the 
Ccccilii at Rome, the most noted of whom are 
—a general who defeated the Achaeans, took 
Thebes, and invaded Macedonia; Quintus 
Csecilius. rendered famous by his successes 
against Jugurtha. the king of Numidia; Q. 
Csecilius Celer, who distinguished himself 
against Catiline. He died fifty-seven years 
before Christ, greatly lamented by Cicero, 
who was one of his warmest friends ; L. Cae- 
cilius, a tribune in the civil wars of Ccesarand 
Pompey, who favored the cause of Pompey ; 
Q. Csecilius, a warlike general who conquered 
Crete and Macedonia; Metellus Cimber, one 
of the conspirators against Caesar. He gave 
the signal to attack and murder the dictator. 

Micip'sa. A king of Numidia, son of Masinissa. 
who, at his death, b.c. 119, left his kingdom 
between his sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal, 
and his nephew Jugurtha. 



Mi'das. A king of Phrygias, son of Gordius oi 
Gorgias. According to some traditions, in 
the early part of his life he found a treasure, 
to which he owed his greatness and opulence. 
He showed hospitality to Silenus, in return 
for which Bacchus permitted him to choose 
whatever recompense he pleased. He de- 
manded of the god that whatever he touched 
might be turned into gold. His wish was 
granted, but when the very food which he at- 
tempted to eat became gold in his mouth he 
prayed Bacchus to revoke the favor, and he 
was ordered to wash himself in the river 
Pactolus, the sands oi which were turned into 
gold by the touch of Midas. Afterward, in 
consequence of maintaining that Pan was 
superior to Apollo in singing and playing the 
flute, he had his ears changed into those of an 
ass by the god. 

Mi'lo. A celebrated athlete of Crotona in Italy. 
He is said to have carried on his shoulders a 
bullock for a considerable distance, and to 
have killed it with a blow from his fist, and 
eaten it in one day. In his old age he at- 
tempted to pull up a tree by the roots, which, 
when half-cleft, re-united, and his hands re- 
maining imprisoned in the tree, he was eaten 
by wild beasts, about 500 years before the 
Christian era. 

Milti'ades, son of Simon, was sent by the Atheni- 
ans to take possession of the Chersonesus. 
On his arrival he seized some of the principal 



inhabitants of the country, made himself ab- 
solute in Chersonese, and married the daughter 
of Olorus, king of the Thracians. He was 
present at the celebrated battle of Marathon, 
where the command was ceded to him, owing 
to his superior abilities. He obtained the 
victory, but an olive crown, which he de- 
manded from his fellow-citizens as a reward 
for his valor, was refused. Afterwards he 
was intrusted with a fleet of seventy ships, 
with which to punish some islands which had 
revolted to the Persians. At first he was suc- 
cessful, but afterward fortune frowned on 
him. He was accused of treason and con- 
demned to death, but his sentence was, owing 
to his great services, commuted. He died in 
prison of some wounds he had received which 
became incurable. In " Childe Harold" (canto 
ii.) Lord Byron alludes to Marathon as 

" The battle-field where Persia's victim horde 
First bow'd beneath the brunt of Hellas' sword." 

Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, war, and all the 
liberal arts, sprang, full-grown and armed, 
from the head of Jupiter, and was immediately 
admitted to the assembly of the gods, and be- 
came one of the most faithful counselors of 
her father. Her power in heaven was great : 
she could hurl the thunders of Jupiter, prolong 
the life of men, and bestow the gift of proph- 
ecy. She was known among the ancients 
by many names. She was called Athena. 


Pallas, Parthenos, Tritonia (because she was 
worshipped near the lakeTritonis) and Hippia 
(because she first taught mankind how to 
manage the horse) , Sais (because she was 
worshipped at Sais) , and some other ames. 
She is usually represented with a helmet on 
her head with a large plume on it, in one hand 
holding a spear, and in the other a shield with 
the head of Medusa on it. Temples were 
erected for her worship in different places. 
one of the most renowned of which was the 
Parthenon at Athens. From this building a 
large collection of ancient sculpture was 
brought to the British Museum by Lord Elgin 
more than seventy years ago. which is known 
as the "Elgin Marbles." Lord Byron wrote a 
scathing satire in reference to the removal of 
these marbles, familiar to his readers undei 
the title of "The Curse of Minerva." He de- 
scribes the goddess as appearing, grief- 
stricken, to appeal against what his lordship 
deemed a desecration : — 

" Yes, t'was Minerva's self; but ah, how changed 
Since o'er the Dardan field in arms she ranged ! 
Not such as erst, by her divine command, 
Her form appeared frorn Phidias' plastic hand; 
Gon2 were the terrors of her awful brow, 
Her idle segis bore no Gorgon now." 

Minos. A king of Crete, son of Jupiter and 
Europa. who gave laws to his subjects B.C. 
1406, which remained in full force in the age 
of Plato. 


Mi'nos the Second was a son of Lycastes, the son 
of Minos the first, and king of Crete. He 
married Pasiphse, the daughter of Sol and 

Minotau rus. A celebrated monster, half a man 
and half a bull, for which a number of young 
Athenian men and maidens were yearly ex- 
acted to be devoured. The Minotaur was 
confined in a famous labyrinth, where at 
length it was slain by Theseus, who was 
guided out of the labyrinth by a clue of thread 
given to him by Ariadne, daughter of King 

Mithrida'tes First, king of Pontus. He was 
tributary to the crown of Persia : his attempts 
to make himself independent of that fealty 
proved fruitless, being defeated in a battle 
which he had provoked, and having to sue for 

Mithrida'tes, surnamed "Eupator" and "The 
Great," succeeded to the throne of Pontus 
when eleven years of age. The beginning of 
his reign was marked by ambition and cruelty. 
At an early age he mured himself to hard- 
ships by devoting himself to manly exercises, 
■ and sleeping in the open air on the bare earth. 
He was constantly engaged in warfare against 
the Romans, and his contests with them are 
known as the Mithridatic wars. His hatred 
of the Romans was so great that, to destroy 
their power, he ordered all of them that were 
in his dominions to be massacred ; and in one 


night 150,000 according to Plutarch, or 80,000 
according to another authority, were slaugh- 
tered. This cruel act called for revenge, and 
great armies were sent against him. After 
varied fortunes Mithridateshad to succumb to 
Pompey, and, worn- out with misfortune, at- 
tempted to poison himself, but unsuccessfully, 
as the numerous antidotes to poison which in 
early life he had taken strengthened his con- 
stitution to resist the effect. He then ordered 
one of his soldiers to give him the fatal blow 
with a sword, which was done. He died 
about sixty-three years before the Christian 
era, in his seventy second year. He is said to 
have been the most formidable opponent the 
Romans ever had, and Cicero estimates him 
as the greatest monarch that ever sat upon a 
throne. It is recorded of him that he con- 
quered twenty-four nations, whose different 
languages he knew and spoke fluently. There 
were a number of persons of the same name, 
but of inferior note. 

Mnemosyne. A daughter of Coelus and Terra, 
mother of the nine Muses. Jupiter assumed 
the form of a shepherd in order to enjoy her 

Mo'mus, the god of mirth amongst the ancients, 
according to Hesiod, was the son of Nox. He 
amused himself by satirizing the gods by 
turning into ridicule whatever they did. 

Morpheus. A minister of the god Somnus, who 
imitated very naturally the gestures, words, 


and manners of mankind. He is sometimes 
called the god of sleep. He is generally rep- 
resented as a sleeping child, of great corpu- 
lence, with wings. 

Mos'chus. A Greek bucolic poet in the age of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus. His eclogues are 
characterized by sweetness and elegance, and 
are said to be equal in merit to the productions 
of Theocritus. 

Mure na. A celebrated Roman, who invaded the 
dominions of Mithridates, at first with success 
but afterward he met with defeat. He was 
honored with a triumph on his return to Rome. 

Mu'sa. The Muses, certain goddessis who pre- 
sided over poetry, music, dancing, and all the 
liberal arts. They were daughters of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne, and were nine in number, 
Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene. Terpsi- 
chore, Erato, Polyhymnia, Calliope, and 

Mycenae. A town of Argolis said to have been 
built by Perseus. It received its name from 
Mycene, a nymph of Laconia. It was taken 
and destroyed by the Argives. 

Naiades. Inferior deities who presided over 
rivers, springs, wells, and fountains. The 
Naiads generally inhabited the country, and 
resorted to the woods and meadows near the 
stream over which they presided. They are 
represented as young and beautiful girls lean- 
ing on an urn, from which flows a stream of 


water, ^gle was the fairest of them, accord- 
ing to Virgil. The word Naiad has become 
Anglicized, and is in frequent use, especially 
by the poets. Thus Scott says ("Lady of the 
Lake," canto i. verse 17), 

" In listening mood she seemed to stand 
The guardian Naiad of the strand." 

Narcis sus. A beautiful youth, son of Cephisus 
and the nymph Liriope, was born at Thespis 
in Boeotia. He saw his image reflected in a 
fountain and became in love with it, thinking 
it to be the nymph of the place. His fruitless 
attempts to reach this beautiful object so pro- 
voked him, that he killed himself. His blood 
was changed into a flower which still bears 
his name. 

Nemae'a. A town of Argolis, with a wood where 
Hercules in the sixteenth year of his age killed 
the celebrated Nemscan lion. It was the first 
of the labors of Hercules to destroy the mon- 
ster, and when he found that his arrows and 
clubs were useless against an animal whose 
skin was impenetrable, he seized it in his 
arms and strangled it. 

Nemesis. One of the infernal deities, daughter 
of Nox. She was the goddess of vengeance. 
She is made one of the Parctc by some mythol- 
ogists, and is represented with a helm and a 
wheel. The term is sometimes used to signify 
vengeance itself. 

Neoptol emus. A king of Epirus, son of Achilles 


and Deidamia, called also Pyrrhus. He 
greatly signalized himself during the siege of 
Troy, and he was the first who entered the 
wooden horse. He was inferior to none of the 
Grecian warriors in valor. Ulysses and Nes- 
tor alone were his superiors in eloquence and 

Ne'pos, Cornelius. A celebrated historian in the 
reign of Augustus, and, like the rest of his 
literary contemporaries, he enjoyed the 
patronage and obtained the favor of the em- 
peror. He was the intimate friend of Cicero 
and Atticus, and recommended himself to 
notice by delicacy of sentiment and a lively 
disposition. Of all his valuable works the 
only one extant is his Lives of illustrious 
Greek and Roman generals. 

Neptu'nus. One of the gods, son of Saturn and 
Ops, and brother to Jupiter and Pluto. He 
was devoured by his father as soon as he was 
born, and restored to life again by a potion 
given to Saturn, by Metis, the first wife of 
Jupiter. Neptune shared with his brothers 
the empire of Saturn, and received as his por- 
tion the kingdom of the sea. He did not think 
this equivalent to the empire of heaven and 
earth which Jupiter had claimed, therefore 
he conspired to dethrone him . The conspiracy 
was discovered, and Jupiter condemned Nep- 
tune to build the walls of Troy. He married 
Amphitrite, who thus broke a vow she had 
made of perpetual celibacy. The lerm Nep- 


tune is often used to signify the sea itself, 
thus Shakspeare ("Tempest," act v. scene i) 

" Ye that on the sands with printless foot 
Do chase the ebbing Neptune." 

Nereides. Nymphs of the sea, daughters of 
Nereus and Doris. According to most of the 
mytliologists, they were fifty in number. 
They are represented as young and handsome 
girls, sitting on dolphins and armed with 

Nero, Claudius Domit ius Caesar. A celebrated 
Roman emperor, son of Caius Domitius 
Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, the daughter of 
Germanicus. His name is the synonym for 
cruelty and vice. In the night it was his wont 
to sally out from his palace to visit the mean- 
est taverns and the different scenes of de- 
pravity that were to be found. He appeared 
on the stage, sometimes representing the 
meanest characters. He resolved to imitate 
the burning of Troy, and caused Rome to be 
set on fire in different places, the flames being 
unextinguished for nine days, and he enjoyed 
the terrible scene. During the conflagration 
he placed himself on the top of a tower and 
sang, accompanying himself on a lyre, of the 
destruction of Troy. Many conspiracies were 
formed against him, the most dangerous of 
which he was saved from by the confession of 
a slave. He killed himself a.d. 68, in the 
thirty second year of his age, after a reign of 


thirteen years and eight months. "Wretch 
that he was, it is said that he had some few to 
mourn for him, and Suetonius records that 
some unseen hand had placed flowers on his 
tomb. This incident is alluded to by Lord 
Byron in these exquisite lines at the end of the 
third canto of "Don Juan" : 

" When Nero perished by the justest doom, 

Which ever the destroyer yet destroyed, 
Amidst the roar of liberated Rome, 

Of nations freed, and the world overjoy'd, 
Some hands unseen strew'd flowers upon his tomb; 

Perhaps the weakness of a heart not void 
Of feeling for some kindness done when power 

Had left the wretch an uncorrupted hour.'' 

Ner'va, M. Cocce ius. A Roman emperor after 
the death of Domitian, a.d. 96. He rendered 
himself popular by his mildness and gen- 
erosity. In his civil character he set an ex- 
ample of good manners and sobriety. He 
made an oath that no senator should suffer 
death during his reign, which he carried out 
by pardoning two members of the senate who 
had conspired against his life. He died in 
his seventy-second year a.d. gS, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Trajan. 

Nessus. A celebrated Centaur killed by Hercules 
for insulting Dejanira. 

Nes tor. A son of Xeleus and Chloris, nephew to 
Pelias, and grandson to Neptune. He was 
present at the bloody battle between the 
Lapithse and the Centaurs, which took place 
at the nuptials of Pirithous. As king of Pylos 


he led his soldiers to the Trojan war, where 
he distinguished himself among the Grecian 
chieftains by eloquence, wisdom, and pru- 
dence. Homer makes his character as the 
most perfect of all his heroes. After the 
Trojan war Nestor retired to Greece, where 
he lived during his declining 3'ears in peace 
and tranquillity. The manner and time of his 
death are unknown. 

Ni'nus. A son of Belus. He built Nineveh and 
founded the Assyrian monarchy, of w^hich he 
was the first sovereign, b.c. 2059. ^^ married 
Semiramis, whose husband had destroyed 
himself through fear of Ninus. He reigned 
fifty-two years. 

Ni'obe. A daughter of Tantalus, king of Lydia, 
and Euryanassa, or Dione. She married 
Amphion, and, according to Hesiod, they 
had ten sons and ten daughters. All the sons 
of Niobe expired by the darts of Apollo, and 
all the daughters, except Chloris, were de- 
stroyed by Diana. Niobe, overwhelmed with 
grief, was changed into a stone. 

Nito'cris. A celebrated queen of Babylon, who 
built a bridge across the Euphrates in the 
middle of that city, and dug a number of re- 
servoirs for the superfluous water of the river. 

Nom'ades. A name given to people who had no 
fixed habitation, and who continually changed 
their place of residence in quest of fresh 
pastures for the cattle they tended. There 
were Nomades in Scythia, India, Arabia, etc. 


The word is in constant use as Anglicized— 
Nomad — meaning any one who leads a wan- 
dering and unsettled life. 

Nox. One of the most ancient deities among the 
heathens, daughter of Chaos. She gave birth 
to the Day and the Light, and was mother of 
the Parcse, Hesperides, Dreams, Death, etc. 

Nu'ma Pompil'ius. A celebrated philosopher of 
Cures. He married Tatia, daughter of Tatius, 
king of the Sabines. and at her death he re- 
tired into the country to devote himself to 
literary pursuits. At the death of Romulus 
the Romans fixed on him to be their new king. 
Numa at first refused the offer of the crown, 
but at length was prevailed on to accept it. 
He endeavored to inculcate into the minds of 
his subjects a reverence for the deity, and he 
did all he could to heal their dissensions. He 
encouraged the report of his visits to the 
nymph Egeria. and made use of her name to 
give sanction to the laws which he had made. 
He dedicated a temple to Janus, which, dur- 
ing his whole reign, remained closed as a 
mark of peace and tranquillity at Rome. 
Numa died after a reign of forty-three years 
(B.C. 672), during which he had given en- 
couragement to the useful arts, and had culti- 
vated peace. 
Nym'phae. Certain female deities among the 
ancients. They were generally divided into 
two classes — nymphs of the land and nymphs 
of the sea. Of the former some presided over 


woods, and were called Dryades and Hama- 
dryades. Of the sea nymphs some were called 
Oceanides, Nereides, Naiades, etc. 

Ocean ides and Oceanit'ides. Sea nymphs, 
daughters of Oceanus, from whom they re- 
ceived their name. According to Apollodorus 
they were 3,000 in number, while Hesiod 
speaks of them as consisting of forty-one. 

Oce'anus. A powerful deity of the sea, son of 
Coelus and Terra. He married Tethys, the 
Oceanides being their children. 

Octa'via. A Roman lady, sister to the emperor 
Augustus, celebrated for her beauty and 
virtues. She married Claudius Marcellus, 
and, after his death, Antony, who for some 
time was attentive to her, but eventually de- 
serted her for Cleopatra. 

Octavia nus, or Octa vius Caesar. A famous 
Roman, who, after the battle of Actium, had 
bestowed on him by the senate the surname 
Augustus, as expressing his dignity and 

Odena'tus. A celebrated prince of Palmyra. At 
an early period of his life he inured himself 
to bear fatigue by hunting wild beasts. He 
was a faithful ally of the Romans, and gave 
great offense to Sapor, king of Persia, in con- 
sequence. In the warfare which ensued he 
obtained advantage over the troops of Sapor, 
and took his wife prisoner, besides gaining 
great booty. He died by the hand of one of 


his relations whom he had offended. Zenobia 
succeeded him on the throne. 

CE'dipus. A son of Laius, king of Thebes, and 
Jocasta. Laius was informed by the oracle, 
as soon as he married Jocasta, that he would 
perish by the hands of his son. On his birth 
CEdipus was given to a domestic, with orders 
to expose him to death on the mountains, 
where he was found by one of the shepherds 
of Polybus, king of Corinth. Periboea, the 
wife of Polybus, educated him as her own 
child, tending him with great care. In after 
life he met Laius in a narrow lane in a chariot, 
and being haughtily ordered to make way for 
Laius, a combat ensued in which Laius was 
slain. After this CEdipus was attracted to 
Thebes by the fame of the Sphinx, who de- 
voured all those who attempted to explain 
without success the enigmas which she pro- 
pounded. The enigma proposed by the 
Sphinx to CEdipus was : — What animal in the 
morning walks upon four feet, at noon upon 
two, and in the evening upon three? CEdipus 
solved the riddle by replying that the animal 
was man, who in childhood crawls on his 
hands and feet, on attaining manhood walks 
on two feet erect, and in the evening of life 
supports his tottering steps with a staff. The 
monster, on hearing the correct solution of the 
riddle, dashed her head against a rock and 

CE'neus. A king of Calydon, son of Parthaon or 


Portheus and Euryte. He married Althaea, 
their children being Clymenus, Meleager, 
Gorge, and Dejanira. In a general sacrifice he 
made to the gods he slighted Diana, who, in 
revenge, sent a wild boar to waste his country. 
The animal was killed by Meleager in the 
celebrated Calydonian boar hunt. After this 
misfortunes overtook CEneus, and he exiled 
himself from Calydon, and died on his way to 

GEnom'aus. King of Pisa, in Elis, and father of 
Hippodamia. He was told by the oracle that 
he would perish by his son-in-law. Being 
skilful in driving a chariot, he announced that 
he would give his daughter in marriage only 
to some one who could defeat him in a race, 
death being the result to those who were de- 
feated. After a number of aspirants had con- 
tended and failed, Pelops, son of Tantalus, 
entered the lists, and by bribing the charioteer 
of CEnomaus. who provided a chariot with a 
broken axle-tree, Pelops won the race, and 
married Hippodamia, becoming king of Persia. 
CEnomaus was killed in the race. 

Olym'pia. Celebrated games which received their 
name either from Olympia. where they were 
observed, or from Jupiter Olympius, to whom 
they were dedicated. 

Olym'pus. A mountain in Macedonia and Thes- 
saly. The ancients supposed that it touched 
the heavens, and thus they have made it the 
residence of the gods, and the place where 


Jupiter held his court. On the top of the 
mountain, according to the poets, eternal 
spring reigned. 

Om'phale. A queen of Lydia, daughter of Jar- 
danus. She married Tmolus, who at his 
death left her mistress of his kingdom. She 
had heard of the exploits of Hercules, and 
wished to see him. After he had slain 
Eurytus, Hercules was ordered to be sold as 
a slave, and was purchased by Omphale, who 
gave him his liberty. He became in love 
with Omphale, who reciprocated his passion. 
He is represented by the poets as being so 
infatuated with her that he sat spinning by 
her side surrounded by her women, while she 
garbed herself with his lion's skin, arming 
herself with his club. 

Oppianus. A Greek poet of Cilicia. He wrote 
some poems celebrated for their sublimity 
and elegance. Caracalla gave him a piece of 
gold for every verse in one of his poems. 
Oppian died of the plague in the thirtieth 
year of his age. 

Ops. A daughter of Coelus and Terra, the same 
as the Rhea of the Greeks, who married 
Saturn, and became mother of Jupiter. She 
was known among the ancients by the dif- 
ferent names of Cybele, Bona Dea. Magna 
Mater, Thya. Tellus, and Proserpina. 

Ores'tes. A son of Agamemnon and Clytem- 
nestra. His father was slain by Clytemnestra 
and ^gisthus, but young Orestes was saved 


from his mother's dagger by his sister Electra, 
called by Homer Laodicea. and was conveyed 
to the house of Strophius, king of Phocis, who 
had married a sister of Agamemnon. He 
was indulgently treated by Strophius, who 
educated him with his son Pylades. The two 
young princes formed the most inviolable 
friendship. When Orestes had arrived at 
years of manhood he avenged his father's 
death by killing his mother Clytemnestra. 

Or'igen. A Greek writer, celebrated for his 
learning and the sublimity of his genius. He 
suffered martyrdom in his sixty-ninth year. 
His works are numerous, consisting of com- 
mentaries on the Scriptures and various 

Orpheus. A son of Q£ger and the Muse Calliope. 
Some suppose him to be the son of Apollo. 
He received a lyre from Apollo, or, according 
to some, from Mercury, on which he played 
in such a masterly manner that the melodious 
sounds caused rivers to cease to flow, and 
savage beasts to forget their wildness. He 
married Eurydice, who died from the bite of 
a serpent. Orpheus felt her death acutely, 
and to recover her he visited the infernal re- 
gions. Pluto, the king of the infernal re- 
gions, was enraptured with the strains of 
music from the lyre of Orpheus, and, accord- 
ing to the poets, the wheel of Ixion stopped, 
the stone of Sisyphus stood still, Tantalus 
forgot his burning thirst, and even the Furies 


relented, so fascinating were the .sounds ex- 
tracted from the lyre. Phito was moved by 
the sorrow of Orpheus, and consented to re- 
store Eurydice to him, provided he forbore to 
look behind him till he had reached the ex- 
tremity of his domain. Orpheus agreed to 
this, but forgot his promise, and turned round 
to look at Eurydice, who instantly vanished 
from his sight. After this he separated him- 
self from the society of mankind, and the 
Thracian women, whom he had offended by 
his coldness, attacked him while they cele- 
brated the orgies of Bacchus, and after they 
had torn his body to pieces they threw his head 
into the Hebrus. Mr. Wiffen, in a translation 
from the Spanish of Garcilaso de la Vega, thus 
beautifully alludes to the strains of Orpheus : 

" Had I the sweet resounding: lyre, 

Whose voice could in a moment chain 
The howling wind's ungovern'd ire. 

And movement of the raging main. 

On savage hill the leopard rein. 
The lion's fiery soul entrance. 

And lead along with golden tones. 

The fascinated trees and stones. 
In voluntary dance.'' 

Osi'ris. A great deity of the Egyptians, husband 
of Isis. The ancients differ in opinion con- 
cerning this celebrated god. but they all agree 
that as ruler of Egypt he took care to civilize 
his subjects, to improve their morals, to give 
them good and salutary laws, and to teach 
them agriculture. 


Ovid'ius, P. Na'so. A celebrated Roman poet 
born at Sulmo. He was sent at an early age 
to Rome, and afterward went to Athens in 
the sixteenth year of his age, where his prog- 
ress in the study of eloquence was great. His 
natural inclination, however, w^as toward 
poetry, and to this he devoted his chief atten- 
tion. His lively genius and fertile imagina- 
tion soon gained him admirers ; the learned 
became his friends ; Virgil, Propertius, 
Horace, and Tibullus honored him with their 
correspondence, and Augustus patronized him 
with unbounded liberality. These favors, 
however, were transitory, and he was ban- 
ished to a place on the Euxine Sea by order 
of the emperor. The true cause of his ban- 
ishment is not known. His friends ardently 
entreated the emperor to permit him to return, 
but in vain, and he died in the seventh or 
eighth year of his banishment, in the fifty- 
ninth year of his age, A.D.17. A great por- 
tion of his works remains. These consist of 
the "Metamorphoses," "Fasti," "Epistolse," 
etc. "While his works are occasionally disfig- 
ured by indelicacy, they are distinguished by 
great sweetness and elegance. 

Pacto'lus. A celebrated river of Lydia. It was 
in this river that Midas washed himself when 
he turned into gold whatever he touched. 

Pae'an. A surname of Apollo derived from the 
word pcEan, a hymn which was sung in his 
honor for killing the serpent Python. 


Palae'mon or Pale'mon. A sea deity, son of 
Athamas and Ino. His original name was 
Melicerta. He assumed the name of Palaemon 
after being changed into a sea deity by Nep- 

Palame des. A Grecian chief, son of Nauplius. 
king of Euboea, and Clymene. He was sent 
by the Greek princes, who were going to the 
Trojan war, to bring Ulysses to the camp, 
who, to withdraw himself from the expedi- 
tion, had pretended to be insane. Palamedes 
soon penetrated the deception, and Ulysses 
was obliged to join in the war. but an invet- 
erate enmity arose between the two, and by 
an unworthy artifice Ulysses procured the 
death of Palamedes. Palamedes is accredited 
with the invention of dice, backgammon, and 
other games. 

Palatinus, Mens. A celebrated hill, the largest 
of the seven hills on which Rome was built. 

Palinu'rus. A skillful pilot of the ship of ^neas. 
He fell into the sea while asleep, and was ex- 
posed to the waves for three days, and on 
reaching the shore was murdered by the in- 
habitants of the place where he landed. 

Palladium. A celebrated statue of Pallas. It 
represented the goddess as holding a spear in 
her right hand, and in her left a distaff and 
spindle. It fell down from heaven near the 
tent of Ilus as he was building the citadel of 
Ilium, while, according to others, it fell in 
Phrygia ; another account says Dardanus re- 


ceived it as a present from his mother Electra ; 
other accounts are given of its origin. It is 
generally agreed, however, that on the pres- 
ervation of the statue the fate of Troy de- 
pended. This was known to the Greeks dur- 
ing the Trojan war, and they contrived to 
obtain possession of it. But some authors 
say that the true Palladium was not carried 
away by the Greeks, but only a statue which 
had been placed near it, and which bore some 
resemblance to it. 

Pallas. A name of Minerva. She is said to 
have received the name because she killed a 
noted giant bearing that name. 

Palmy ra. The capital of Palmyrene, a country 
on the eastern boundaries of Syria, now called 
Tadmor. It is famous as being the seat of 
government of the celebrated Queen Zenobia. 

Pan. The god of shepherds, huntsmen, and the 
inhabitants of the country. He was in ap- 
pearance a monster; he liad two small horns 
on his head, and his legs, thighs, tail, and 
feet were like those of the goat. 

Pan'darus. A son of Lycaon, who aided the 
Trojans in their war with the Greeks. He 
broke the truce which had been agreed on by 
the contending armies, and wounded Mene- 
laus and Diomedes. He was at last killed by 

Pandi on. A king of Athens, father of Procne and 
Philomela. During his reign there was such 
ail abundance of corn, wine, and oil in his 


realm that it was supposed that Bacchus and 
Minerva had personally visited the country. 

Pandora. A celebrated woman ; the first mortal 
female that ever lived, according to Hesiod. 
She was made of clay by Vulcan, and having 
received life, all the gods made presents to 
her. Venus gave her beauty and the art of 
pleasing ; the Graces gave her the power of 
captivating ; Apollo taught her how to sing, 
and Mercury instructed her in eloquence. 
Jupiter gave her a beautiful box, which she 
was ordered to present to the man who mar- 
ried her. This was Epimetheus, brother of 
Prometheus, who opened the box, from which 
issued a multitude of evils, which became dis- 
persed all over the world, and which from 
that fatal moment have never ceased to affect 
the human race. Hope alone remained at the 
bottom of the box. 

Pansa, C. Vib'tus. A Roman consul, who, with 
Hirtius, pursued the assassins of Caesar, and 
was killed in a battle near Mutina. 

Pantheon. A celebrated temple at Rome, built 
by Agrippa in the reign of Augustus, and 
dedicated to all the gods. 

Par'cae. The Fates, powerful goddesses who 
presided over the birth and life of mankind. 
They were three in number, Clotho, Lachesis, 
and Atropos, daughters of Nox and Erebus, 
according to Hesiod, or, according to what he 
says in another place, of Jupiter and Themis. 

Paris. The son of Priam, king of Troy, and 


Hecuba ; he was also called Alexander. He 
was destined before his birth to cause the ruin 
of his country, and before he was born his 
mother dreamt that he would be a torch which 
would set fire to her palace. The soothsayers 
predicted that he would be the cause of the 
destruction of Troy. In consequence of these 
foretold calamities Priam ordered a slave to 
destroy the child immediately after birth, but 
instead of acting thus the slave exposed the 
child on Mount Ida, where some shepherds 
found him and took care of him. Paris gave 
early proofs of courage, and his graceful con- 
tenance recommended him to CEnone, a 
nymph of Ida, whom he married. At the 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis the goddess of 
discord, who had not been invited, showed 
her displeasure by throwing into the assembly 
of the gods, who were at the nuptials, a 
golden apple, on which were the words : — Let 
it be given to the fairest. The apple was 
claimed by Juno, Venus, and Minerva. Paris, 
who had been appointed to award it to the 
most beautiful of the three goddesses, gave it 
to Venus. Subsequently I^aris visited Sparta, 
where he persuaded Helen, wife of Menelaus, 
the most beautiful woman of the age, to elope 
with him. This caused the Trojan war. Dif- 
ferent accounts are given of the death of Paris. 
By some he if? said to have been killed by one 
of the arrows of Philoctetes which had once 
belonged to Hercules. 


Parme'nio. A celebrated general in the armies 
of Alexander the Great, by whom he was re- 
garded with the greatest affection. The firm 
friendship which existed between the two 
generals was broken in a sudden fit of anger 
by Alexander, who ordered his friend to be 
put to death, b.c. 330. 

Parnassus. A mountain of Phocis sacred to the 
Muses, and to Apollo and Bacchus. It was 
named thus after a son of Neptune who bore 
that designation. Lord Byron alludes to it in 
"Childe Harold," canto i. : 

" Oh, thou Parnassus ! whom I now survey, 
Not in the frenzy of a dreamer's eye, 
Not in the fabled landscape of a lay. 
But soaring snow-clad through thy native sky, 
In the wild pomp of mountain majesty !"' 

Parrha'sius. A famous painter of Ephesus in the 
age of Zeuxis, about fifteen years before 
Christ. He contended on one occasion with 
Zeuxis for the palm in painting, and Zeuxis 
acknowledged that he was excelled by Par- 

Parthenon. A temple of Athens sacred to Mi- 
nerva. It was destroyed by the Persians, and 
was rebuilt by Pericles. 

Pasiph'ae. A daughter of the vSun and of Per- 
seis, who married Minos, king of Crete. She 
became the mother of the Minotaur which was 
killed by Theseus. 

Patroclus. One of the Grecian chiefs during the 
Trojan war. He contracted an intimate 


friendship with Achilles, and when the Greeks 
went to the Trojan war Patroclus accompanied 
them. He was the constant companion of 
Achilles, living in the same tent, and when 
his friend refused to appear in the field of 
battle, because of being offended with Aga- 
memnon. Patroclus imitated his example. 
Nestor, however, prevailed on him again to 
take the field, and Achilles lent him his ar- 
mor. Hector encountered him, and after a 
desperate fight slew him. The Greeks ob- 
tained his dead body, which was brought into 
the Grecian camp, where Achilles received it 
with great lamentation, and again taking the 
field, killed Hector, thus avenging the death 
of his friend. 

Pau lus iEmil'ius. A Roman celebrated for his 
military achievements, surnamed "Macedo- 
nicus" from his conquest of ]Macedonia. In 
earl}' life he distinguished himself by his ap- 
plication and for his love for military disci- 
pline. In his first consulship he reduced the 
Ligurians to subjection, and subsequently 
obtained a great victory over the Macedo- 
nians, making himself master of the country. 
In the office of censor, which he filled, he be- 
haved with great moderation, and at his 
death, about i68 years before the Christian 
era, the Romans mourned deeply for him. 

Pausa'nias. A Spartan general who greatly sig- 
nalized himself at the battle of Plataea against 
the Persians. He afterward, at the head of 


the Spartan armies, extended his conquests in 
Asia, but the haughtiness of his behavior 
made him many enemies. He offered, on 
certain conditions, to betray Greece to the 
Persians, but his perfidy was discovered, on 
which he fled for safety to a temple of Mi- 
nerva, where he was starved to death, b.c. 


Peg asus. A winged horse sprung from the blood 
of Medusa. According to Ovid he fixed his 
abode on Mount Helicon, where, by striking 
the earth with his foot, he raised a fountain 
which has been called Hippocrene. 

Pe lens. A king of Thessaly, son of ^acus and 
Endeis, the daughter of Chiron. He married 
Thetis, one of the Nereids. 

Pe lias. Son of Neptune and Tyro. On his birth 
he was exposed in the woods, but his life was 
preserved by some shepherds. Subsequently 
Tyro was married to Cretheus, king of lolchos. 
They had three children, of whom ^son was 
the eldest. Pelias visited his mother after 
the death of Cretheus, and usurped the author- 
ity which properly belonged to the children 
of the deceased monarch. Jason, the son of 
^son, who had been educated by Chiron, on 
attaining manhood demanded the kingdom, 
the government of which Pelias had usurped. 
Jason was persuaded by Pelias to waive his 
claim for the present, and start on the Argo- 
nautic expedition. On his return, accompan- 
ied by the sorceress Medea, she undertook to 


restore Pelias to youth, explaining that it was 
necessary first to cut his body to pieces and 
place the limbs in a caldron of boiling water. 
This was done, when Medea refused to fulfil 
her promise, which she had solemnly made to 
the daughters of Pelias, who were four in 
number, and who had received the patronymic 
of the " Peliades. " 

Pe lion, sometimes called Pelios. A celebrated 
mountain of Thessaly, the top of which is 
covered with pine-trees. 

Pelop Idas. A celebrated general of Thebes, son 
of Hippoclus. It was owing to his valor and 
prudence, combined with the ability of Epam- 
inondas, that the famous victory of Leuctra 
was won. 

Pe'lops. A celebrated prince, son of Tantalus, 
king of Phrygia. He was killed by his father, 
and served up as a feast to the gods, who had 
visited Phrygia. He was restored to life, and 
married Hippodamia, having won her through 
defeating her father in a chariot race. 

Penates. Certain inferior deities among the Ro- 
mans, who presided over the domestic affairs 
of families. 

Penelope. A celebrated princess of Greece, 
daughter of Icarius, and wife of Ulysses, 
king of Ithaca. She became the mother of 
Telemachus, and was obliged to part, with 
great reluctance, from her husband when the 
Greeks obliged him to go to the Trojan war. 
The strife between the hostile forces continued 


. for ten years, and when Ulysses did not re- 
turn home at the conclusion of the war her 
fears and anxieties became overwhehning. 
She was beset by a number of suitors, who 
told her that her husband would never return. 
She received their advances with coldness, but 
as she was devoid of power, and, as it were, 
almost a prisoner in their hands, she tempo- 
rized with them. After twenty years' absence 
Ulysses returned, and at once delivered her 
from the persecutions of her suitors. Penel- 
ope is described by Homer as a model of 
female propriety, whilst some more modern 
writers dispute the correctness of this view. 
The accounts given by different authors re- 
specting her, in fact, differ materially. By 
some she is said to have been the mother of 

Penthesile'a. A queen of the Amazons, daughter 
of Mars. She came to assist Priam in the last 
years of the Trojan war, and was slain by 

Per 'gamus. The citadel of the city of Troy The 
word is often used to signify Troy. From it 
Xerxes reviewed his troops as he marched to 
invade Greece. 

Per'icles. An Athenian of noble family, son of 
Xanthippus and Agariste. His naturally 
great mental powers were greatly improved 
by attending the lectures of Zeno and other 
philosophers. He became a commander, a 
statesman, and an orator, and gained the es- 


teem of the people by his address and liber- 
ality. In his ministerial capacity, Pericles 
did not enrich himself. The prosperity and 
happiness of Athens was his primary ob- 
ject. He made war against the Lacedae- 
monians, and restored the temple of Delphi 
to the care of the Phocians, who had been 
improperly deprived of that honorable trust. 
The Peloponnesian war was fomented by his 
ambitious views. He at length lost his popu- 
larity, but only temporarily, and he was re- 
stored to all the honors of which he had been 
deprived. A pestilence which prevailed 
proved fatal to him in his seventieth year, 
about 429 years before Christ. 
Perseus. A son of Jupiter and Danae, the 
daughter of Acrisius. It had been predicted 
by the oracle that Acrisius was to perish by 
his daughter's offspring, so Perseus, soon 
after his birth, was, with his mother Danae, 
thrown into the sea. Both were saved, and 
reached the island of Seriphos, where they 
were treated kindly by Polydectes, the king, 
who, however, soon became jealous of the 
genius of Perseus. Perseus had promised 
Polydectes to bring him the head of the Gor- 
gon Medusa. To enable him to obtain this 
Pluto lent him a helmet which made the 
wearer invisible, Minerva gave him her buck- 
ler, and Mercury furnished him with wings. 
Thus equipped he found the Gorgons, and cut 
off Medusa's head, with which he fled through 


the air, and from the blood which dropped 
from It sprang the horse Pegasus. During 
his flight Perseus discovered Andromeda 
chained to a rock to be devoured by a sea 
monster, which he destroyed, and married 
Andromeda. He now returned to vSeriphos, 
where he turned into stone Polydectes by 
showing him Medusa's head. By an accident, 
in throwing a quoit he killed Acrisius, thus 
fulfilling the prediction of the oracle. 

Perseus or Per ses. A son of Philip, king of 
Macedonia. He distinguished himself by his 
enmity to the Romans, and when he had made 
sufficient preparations he declared war against 
them. He, however, wanted courage and 
resolution, and though he at first obtained 
some advantages over the Roman armies, his 
timidity proved destructive to his cause. He 
was defeated at Pydna, and soon after was 
taken prisoner, and died in prison at Rome. 

Per sius, Au lus Flac cus. A Latin poet of Vola- 
terrae. He was of a good family, and soon 
became intimate with the most illustrious 
Romans of his day. The early part of his life 
was spent in his native town, but at the age 
of sixteen he was removed to Rome, where he 
studied philosophy. He died in his thirtieth 
year, a.d. 62. The satires of Persius were 
read with pleasure and avidity by his con- 

Per'tinax, Pub'lius Hel'vius. A Roman emperor 
after the death of Comraodus. He was de- 


scended from an obscure family, and for some 
time was employed in drying wood and mak- 
ing charcoal. He entered on a military life, 
and by his valor rose to offices of the highest 
trust, and was made consul. At the death of 
Commodus he was selected to succeed to the 
throne. His patriotism gained him the affec- 
tion of the worthiest of his subjects, but there 
were some who plotted against him. He was 
killed by his soldiers a.d. 193. 

Petro'nius Arbiter. A favorite of Emperor Nero, 
and one of the ministers and associates of his 
pleasures and vices. He was made proconsul 
of Bithynia, and afterward was honored with 
the consulship. Eventually he became out 
of favor with Nero, and resolved to destroy 
himself, which he did by having his veins 
opened, a.u. 66. Petronius distinguished 
himself by his writings as well as by his 
voluptuousness. He is the author of many 
elegant compositions, which are, however, 
often characterized by impropriety of lan- 

Phaedra. A daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, 
who married Theseus. She became the mother 
of Acamas and Demophoon. She brought an 
unjust accusation against Hippolytus (a son 
of The-seus before she married him) , who was 
killed by the horses in his chariot taking 
fright, causing him to be thrown under the 
wheels and crushed to death. On hearing 
this Phajdra acknowledged the falseness of 


the charge she had brought against Hippo- 
lytus, and hanged herself in despair. 

Phae'drus. A Thracian who became one of the 
freedmen of the emperor Augustus. He 
translated the fables of ^sop into Iambic 

Pha'ethon. A son of the Sun, or of Phoebus and 
Clymene. According to Hesiod and Pausa- 
nias he was son of Cephalus and Aurora, or 
of Tithonus and Aurora according to Apollo- 
dorus. He is, however, generally acknowl- 
edged to be son of Phoebus and Clymene. 
Phoebus allowed him to drive the chariot of 
the sun for one day. Phaethon, on receiving 
the reins, at once showed his incapacity ; the 
horses became unmanageable, and heaven 
and earth were threatened with a conflagra- 
tion, when Jupiter struck Phaethon with a 
thunderbolt, and hurled him into the river 
Po, where he perished. 

Phalaris. A tyrant of Agrigentum, who treated 
his subjects with great cruelty. Perillus made 
him a brazen bull, inside of which he proposed 
to place culprits, and by applying fire burn 
them to death. The first to be thus burnt in 
this manner was Perillus himself. The cruel- 
ties practised by Phalaris were revenged by a 
revolt of his people, who put him to death by 
burning him in the bull. 

Pha'on. A boatman of Mitylene, in Lesbos. He 
received a box of ointment from Venus, who 
had presented herself to him in the form of an 


old woman. When he had rubbed himself 
with the unguent he became beautiful, and 
Sappho, the celebrated poetess, became en- 
amored with him. For a short time he de- 
voted himself to her, but soon treated her 
with coldness, upon which she threw herself 
into the sea and was drowned. 

Pharnaba'zus. A satrap of Persia who assisted 
the Lacedaemonians against the Athenians, 
and gained their esteem by his devotion to 
their cause. 

Pha'ros. A small island in the bay of Alexan- 
dria, on which was built a tower which was 
considered one of the seven wonders of the 
world. It was erected in the reigns of Ptolem}' 
Soter and Ptolemy Philadelphus, the architect 
being Sostratus, the son of Dexiphanes, 

Pharsa'lia. A town of Thessaly, famous for the 
great battle fought there between Julius Caesar 
and Pompey, in which the former obtained 
the victory. 

Phid ias. A celebrated sculptor of Athens, who 
died B.C. 432. He executed a statue of Mi- 
nerva, which was placed in the Pantheon. 

Philip'pi. A town of Macedonia, celebrated for 
two battles fought there, 15. c. 42, between 
Augustus and Antony and the republican 
forces of Brutus and Cassius, in which the 
former were victorious. 

Philip'pus, king of Macedonia, was son of Amyn- 
tas, king ni Macedonia. He learnt the art of 
war from Epaminondas. He married Olym* 


pias. the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of 
the Molossi, and became father of Alexan- 
der the Great. Among the most important 
evisnts of his reign was the battle of Chyero- 
nea, which he won from the Greeks. The 
character of Philip is that of a sagacious, pru- 
dent, but artful and intriguing, monarch. He 
was assassinated by Pausanias at the celebra- 
tion of the nuptials of his daughter, in the 
forty-seventh year of his age and the twenty- 
fourth of his reign, about 336 years before the 
Christian era. 

Philip'pus. The last king of Macedonia of that 
name was son of Demetrius. He aspired to 
become the friend of Hannibal. His intrigues 
were discovered by the Romans, who in- 
vaded his territories, and extorted peace from 
him on terms which were humiliating. He 
died in the forty-second year of his reign, 179 
years before the Christian era. 

Phi'lo. A Jewish writer of Alexandria, a.d. 40. 
His works related to the creation of the world, 
sacred history, and the laws and customs of 
the Jewish nation. 

Philocte'tes was one of the Argonauts. He re- 
ceived from Hercules the arrows which had 
been dipped in the gall of the Hydra. The 
Greeks, in the tenth year of the Trojan war, 
were informed by the oracle that Troy could 
not be taken without these arrows. Philocte- 
tes repaired to the Grecian camp, where he 
destroyed a number of the Trojans, among 


whom was Paris, with the arrows. The ad- 
ventures of Philoctetes are the subject of one 
of the best tragedies of Sophocles. 
Philome'la. A daughter of Pandion, king of 
Athens. Her sister Procne had married 
Tereus, king of Thrace, and being separated 
from Philomela spent her time in great mel- 
ancholy. She persuaded her husband to go 
to Athens and bring her sister to Thrace. 
Tereus, on the journey, treated Philomela 
with great cruelty, and cut off her tongue, con- 
fining her in a lonely castle, and reporting to 
Procne that she was dead. Philomela, how- 
ever, found means to inform Procne that she 
was living. In revenge for the cruelty of 
Tereus, Procne murdered his son and served 
him up as food at a banquet. On hearing 
this Tereus drew his sword to slay the sisters, 
when he was changed into a hoopoe. Philomela 
into a nightingale, and Procne into a swallow. 
In poetry we frequently find the nightingale 
alluded to as Philomela, as in this quatrain, 
which occurs in a contribution to the "Eto- 
nian :— 

" Hark ! upon the passing gale 
Philomela''s plaintive wail ! 
Feelings how serene and tender 
Does the lovely music render." 

Philopoe'men. A celebrated general of the Achae- 
ans, born at Megalopolis. At an early age 
he distinguished himself in the field of battle, 
at the same time appearing fond of agricul- 


ture and a country life. He adopted Epami- 
nondas as his model, and was not unsuccess- 
ful in imitating the prudence and other good 
qualities of the famous Theban. When Me- 
galopolis was attacked by the Spartans, Phil- 
opoemen, then in his thirtieth year, gave the 
most decisive proofs of his valor. Raised to 
the rank of commander, he showed his ability 
to discharge that important trust by killing 
with his own hand Mechanidas, the tyrant of 
Sparta, and defeating his army. Sparta hav- 
ing become, after its conquest, tributary to 
the Achseans, Philopoemen enjoyed the tri- 
umph of having subdued one of the most 
powerful states of Greece. He was at length 
made prisoner by the Messenians, and was 
treated by their general, Dinocrates. with 
great severity. He was poisoned in his seven 
tieth year, about 1S3 years before the Chris- 
tian era. 

Philos'tratus. A famous Sophist born at Lemnos, 
or, according to some, at Athens. He came 
to Rome, where he was patronized by Julia, 
the wife of the Emperor Severus. She en- 
trusted him with some papers referring to 
Apollonius, whose life he wrote. This bio- 
graphy is, written with elegance, but contains 
many exaggerated descriptions and improb- 
able stories. 

Phi'neus. A son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, 
or, according to some, a son of Xeptune, who 
became king of Thrace. He married Cleopa- 


tra (called by some Cleobula) , the daughter 
of Boreas, their children being Plexippus and 
Pandion. After the death of Cleopatra, he 
married Idaea, the daughter of Dardanus, 
who, jealous of Cleopatra's children, accused 
them of an attempt on their father's life, and 
they were condemned by Phineus to have their 
eyes put out. This cruelty was punished by 
the gods, Phineus being made blind, and the 
Harpies were sent by Jupiter to keep him in 
continual alarm. He recovered his sight by 
means of the Argonauts, whom he received 
with great hospitality. 

Phleg ethon. A river in the infernal regions, be- 
tween the banks of which flames of fire flowed 
instead of water. 

Phle'gon. One of the Emperor Adrian's f reed- 
men. He wrote a historical account of Sicily, 
an account of the principal places in Rome, 
and treatises on different subjects. His style 
was inelegant, and he evinced a want of judg- 
ment in his writings. 

Pho cion. An Athenian celebrated for his public 
and private virtue. He was distinguished for 
his zeal for the general good, and for his mili- 
tary abilities. The fickleness of the Atheni- 
ans, however, caused them to lose sight of his 
virtues, and, being accused of treason, he was 
condemned to drink poison, which he took with 
the greatest heroism. His death occurred 
about 3t8 years before the Christian era. 

PhcE nix, son of Amyntor, king of Argos, and 


Cleobule or Hippodamia, was preceptor to 
Achilles. He accompanied his pupil to the 
Trojan war, and Achilles was ever grateful 
for the precepts he had received from him. 
After the fall of Troy he died in Thrace, and, 
according to Strabo, was buried near Tra- 
chinia, where his name was given to a river. 

Phry'ne. A beautiful woman who lived at Athens 
about 328 years before the Christian era. She 
was beloved by Praxiteles, who painted her 
portrait. It is said that Apelles painted his 
Venus Anadyomene after he had seen Phryne 
on the sea-shore with dishevelled hair. There 
was another woman of the same name, who 
was accused of impiety. When her judges 
were about to condemn her she unveiled her 
bosom, and her beauty so captivated them 
that they acquitted her. 

Phryx us. A son of Athamas, king of Thebes, 
and Nephele. On the plea of insanity, Nephele 
was repudiated by Athamas, who then married 
Ino, who persecuted Phryxus with inveterate 
hatred, because he was to succeed to the throne 
in preference to one of her own children. Be- 
ing apprised that Ino had designs on his life, 
he started with his sister Helle to go to yEetes, 
king of Colchis. According to the poets they 
mounted on a ram, whose fleece was gold, 
which soared into the air, directing its course 
to Colchis. Helle became giddy, and falling 
into the sea (afterward called the Helles- 
pont), was drowned. Phryxus arrived at the 


court of ^etes, whose daughter Chalciope he 
married. Some time afterward he was killed 
by his father-in-law. The murder of Phryxus 
gave rise to the famous Argonautic expedition 
under Jason, the object being to recover the 
Golden Fleece, wliich Jason succeeded in ob- 

Phyl'lis. A daughter of Sithon, or, according to 
other writers, of Lycurgus, king of Thrace. 
She received Demophoon, who landed on her 
coasts on his return from the Trojan war, and 
fell in love with him, and he reciprocated her 
affection; but afterward proving faithless, 
Phyllis hanged herself, and, according to an 
old tradition, was changed into an almond 

Pious. King of Latium. son of Saturn, who mar- 
ried Venilia. As he was hunting he was met 
by Circe, who became enamored with him. 
She changed him into a woodpecker. 

Pier'ides. A name given to the Muses, because 
they were born in Pieria, or, as some say, be- 
cause they were supposed to be the daughters 
of Pierus, a king of Macedonia, who settled 
in B(X3otia. 

Pin'darus. A celebrated lyric poet of Thebes. 
When he was young it is said that a swarm of 
bees settled on his lips and left on them some 
honey, which was regarded as a prognostic of 
his future greatness. After his death great 
respect was shown to his memory, and a 
statue was erected in liis honor in one of the 


most public places in Thebes. Pindar is said 
to have died at the age of eighty-six, b.c. 435. 
Of his works, the odes only are extant : they 
are admired for sublimity of sentiment and 
grandeur of expression. 

Piraeus, A celebrated harbor at Athens about 
three miles from the city. It was joined to 
the town by two walls, one built by Pericles, 
and the other by Themistocles. 

Pirith'ous. Son of Ixion and Dia, the daughter 
of Deioneus. He was king of the Lapithae, 
and wished to become acquainted with The- 
seus, king of Athens, of whose fame and ex- 
ploits he had heard. They became cordial 
friends. Pirithous married Hippodamia, and 
invited the Centaurs to attend his nuptials, 
where, having become intoxicated, they be- 
haved with great rudeness, on which they were 
attacked and overcome by Theseus, Pirithous, 
Hercules, and the rest of the Lapithae. Many 
of the Centaurs were slain, and the rest saved 
their lives by flight. 

Pisan der. A commander in the Spartan fleet 
during the Peloponnesian war. He was great- 
ly opposed to democracy at Athens. He was 
killed in a naval battle near Cnidus, b.c. 394. 

Pisis'tratus. A celebrated Athenian who distin- 
guished himself by valor in the field and by 
eloquence at home. He obtained a bodyguard 
of fifty men to defend his person, and having 
thus got a number of armed men on whom he 
could rely, he seized the citadel of Athens, 


and soon made himself absolute. After this 
a conspiracy was formed against him, and he 
was banished from the city. He soon, how- 
ever, re-established himself in power, and 
married the daughter of Megacles, one of his 
greatest enemies, whom he afterward repu- 
diated. On this his popularity waned, and 
he fled from Athens, but after an absence of 
eleven years he returned, and was received by 
the people with acclamation. He died about 
527 years before the Christian era. 
Pi'so. A celebrated family at Rome, eleven of 
whom had obtained the consulship, and some 
of whom had had been honored with triumphs 
for their victories. Of this family the most 
famous were — Lucius Calpurnius, who was 
tribune of the people about 149 years before 
Christ, and afterward consul. He gained 
honor as an orator, a statesman, and a his- 
torian. Caius, another of the family, distin- 
guished himself during his consulship by his 
firmness in resisting the tumults raised by the 
tribunes and the clamors of the people. Cneus, 
who was consul under Augustus, rendered 
himself odious by his cruelty. He was ac- 
cused of poisoning Germanicus, and, being 
shunned by his friends, destroyed himself. 
Lucius, a governor of Spain, who was assas- 
sinated by a peasant. Lucius, a governor of 
Rome for twenty years, during which time he 
discharged his duties with moderation and 
justice. Caius, who was at the head of a con 


spiracy against Nero. He committed suicide 
by venesection. 

Pit'tacus, a native of Mitylene in Lesbos, was one 
of the seven wise men of Greece. He died in 
the eighty-second year of his age. about 570 
years before Christ, the latter part of his life 
being spent in retirement. Many of his 
maxims were inscribed on the walls of Apollo's 
temple at Delphi, to show how high an opinion 
his countrymen entertained of his abilities as 
a moralist and philosopher. 

Plancus, L. Muna tius. A Roman conspicuous 
for his follies and extravagance. He had 
been consul, and had presided over a pro- 
vince, but he forgot his dignity, and became 
one of the most servile flatterers of Antony 
and Cleopatra. 

Platae a. A town of Boeotia, near Mount Citheron, 
celebrated as the scene of a battle between 
Mardonius, the general of Xerxes, king of 
Persia, and Pausanias, who commanded the 
Athenians. The Persians were defeated with 
great slaughter. 

Plato. A celebrated philosopher of Athens. He 
was educated carefully, his mind being culti- 
vated by the stud}' of poetry and geometry, 
while his body was invigorated by the prac- 
tice of gymnastics. He began his literary 
career by writing poetry and tragedies. At 
the age of twenty he was introduced to Socra- 
tes, with whom he was for some time a pupil. 
After traveling in various countries, he re- 



tired to the neighborhood of Athens, where 
his lectures were attended by a crowd of 
learned, noble, and illustrious pupils. He 
died on his birthday in the eighty-first year of 
his age, about 348 years before the Christian 
era. His writings were so celebrated, and his 
opinions so highly regarded, that he was called 
the Divine. 

Plau'tus, M. Ac'cius. A dramatic poet born in 
Umbria. He wrote twenty-five comedies, of 
which only nineteen are extant. He died 
about 184 years before the Christian era. 

Plei'ades. A name given to seven daughters of 
Atlas and Pleione. They were placed after 
death in the heavens, and formed a constella- 

Plin'ius, C. Sccun dus, called the Elder, was born 
at Verona, of a noble family. He distin- 
guished himself in the field, and was ap- 
pi inted governor of Spain. When at Mise- 
num in command of the Roman fleet, Pliny 
observed the appearance of a cloud of dust 
and ashes, which was the commencement of 
the famous eruption of Mount Vesuvius which 
overwhelmed Herculaneum and Pompeii. He 
sailed for the scene of the eruption, where he 
was suffocated by the vapors emitted. This 
occurred in tlie seventy-ninth year of the 
Christian era. 

Plin ius, C. Caecilius Secun dus, surnamed the 
Younger Pliny, was son of L. Caecilius by the 
sister of Pliny the Elder. At the age of nine- 


teen he distinguished himself at the bar. 
When Trajan was invested with the purple, 
Pliny was created consul. He died in the 
fifty-second year of his age, a.d. 113. Pliny 
had much to do with the persecutions of the 
Christians in the early promulgation of the 
Christian religion. The Rev. James Copland, 
M.A., in an admirable little work entitled 
"Reasons why we Believe the Bible," gives a 
very interesting letter from Pliny to the em- 
peror Trajan, asking instructions how to deal 
with the Christians when they were cited to 
appear before him. 

Plutar'chus, the celebrated biographer, was born 
at Chseronea, his father being distinguished 
for his learning and virtues. After traveling 
in quest of knowledge, he retired to Rome, 
where he opened a school. Subsequently he 
removed to Chseronea, were he died at an ad- 
vanced age about the 140th year of the Chris- 
tian era. His most esteemed work is the 
"Lives of Illustrious Men." 

Plu'to, son of Saturn and 0*ps, inherited his 
father's kingdom with his brothers, Jupiter 
and Neptune. He received as his portion the 
kingdom of the infernal regions, of death, 
and funerals. He seized Proserpine as she 
was gathering flowers, and carrying her away 
on his chariot, she became his wife and queen 
of the infernal regions. 

Plu'tus, the god of riches, was the son of Jason, 
or Jasius, and Ceres. 


Pol'lio, C. Asin ius. A Roman consul in the 
reign of Augustus, who distinguished him- 
self equally by his eloquence and exploits in 
war. He wrote a history and some tragedies, 
and died in his eightieth year, a.d. 4. 

Pollux. A son of Jupiter and Leda, brother to 

Polyb ius. A native of Megalopolis. He distin- 
guished himself by his valor against the 
Romans in Macedonia. He wrote a univer- 
sal history in Greek, and died about 124 years 


Polydec'tes. A son of Magnes, king of Se'riphos. 
He received with kindness Danae and her son 
Perseus, who had been exposed on the sea. 
Polydectes was turned into stone by being 
shown Medusa's head by Perseus. 

Polyhymnia. One of the Muses, daughter of 
Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over 
singing and rhetoric. 

Polyni'ces. A sou of CEdipus, king of Thebes, 
and Jocasta. He inherited his father's throne 
with his brother Eteocles, and it was agreed 
that they should reign a year alternately. 
Eteocles first ascended the throne, but re- 
fused to resign the crown. Polynices upon 
this fled to Argos, where he married Argia, 
the daughter of Adrastus, the king of the 
country, and levied an army with which he 
marched on Thebes. The battle was decided 
by a combat between the brothers, who killed 
each other. 


Polyphe mus. A celebrated Cyclops, son of 
Neptune and Thoosa, the daughter of Phorcys. 
He is represented as a monster with one eye 
in the middle of his forehead. Ulysses was 
his captive, but escaped by putting a fire- 
brand in the monster':: eye. 

Pomona. A nymph at Rome, who was supposed 
to preside over gardens and to be the goddess 
of fruit trees. 

Pompeii or Pompei um. A town of Campania, 
It was partly destroyed by an earthquake 
A.D. 63, and sixteen years afterward it was 
overwhelmed by ashes and lava from an 
eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum, 
in its vicinity, shared the same fate. 

Pompe ius, Cnei us, surnamed ISlagnus from his 
exploits, was son of Pompeius Strabo and 
Lucilia. In the contentions which existed 
between INIarius and Sjdla Pompey linked 
himself with the latter. Subsequently he 
united his interest with that of Caesar and 
Crassus, thus forming the first triumvirate. 
A breach soon occurred, and at the great bat- 
tle of Pharsalia. where the forces of Caesar 
and Pompey met, the latter was totally de- 
feated, and fled to Eg3'pt. where he was as- 
sassinated in the fifty-eighth year of his age, 
B.C. 48. He left two sons, Cneius and Sextus, 
who at their father's death were masters of a 
powerful army with which they opposed 
Caesar, but were defeated at the battle of 
Munda, where Cneius was slain. Sextus es- 


caped, and was put to death by Antony about 
thirty-five years before the Christian era. 
Por'cia. A daughter of Cato of Utica, who mar- 
ried Bibulus, and after his death Brutus. 
She was distinguished for her prudence and 
courage. After her husband's death she 
killed herself by swallowing burning coals. 
She is said to have given herself a severe 
wound to show that she could bear pain. 
Shakespeare alludes to this (Julius Caesar, 
act ii. , scene i) , where he makes her exclaim, 
to show her heroism, 

" I have made strong- proof of my constancy. 
Giving myself a voluntary wound 
Here, in the thigh." 

Porphyr'ius. A Platonic philosopher of Tyre. 
He studied eloquence at Athens under Lon- 
ginus, and afterward retired to Rome. His 
most celebrated work was in reference to the 
Christian religion. Porphyry died a.d. 304, 
aged seventy-one years. 

Porsen na or Per sena. A king of Etruria, who 
declared war against the Romans because they 
refused to restore Tarquin to the throne. He 
was prevented from entering the gates of 
Rome by the valor of P. Horatius Codes, 
who at the head of a bridge kept back Por- 
senna's army, while the bridge was being cut 
down by the Romans to prevent the entry of 
their enemies into the city. Eventually Por- 
senna abandoned the cause of Tarquin. Lord 
Macaulay, in his fine poem " Horatius," repre- 


sents two other heroes, "Spurins Lartius" and 
"Herminius," as keeping the bridge on either 
hand of Horatius Codes. 

Praxit'elec. A famous sculptor of Greece, who 
lived about 324 years before the Christian 
era. The most famous of his works was a 
Cupid, which he gave to Phryne. He exe- 
cuted a statue of Phryne, and also one of 

Pri'amus. The last king of Troy, was son of 
Laomedon, by Strymo, called. Placia by some 
writers. He married Arisba, whom he di- 
vorced in order to marry Hecuba, by whom 
he had a number of children, the most cele- 
brated of whom were Hector, Paris, Dei- 
phobus, Helenus, Laodice, and Cassandra. 
After he had reigned some tim.e, Priam was 
anxious to recover his sister Hesione, who 
had been carried into Greece by Hercules, and 
to achieve this, he manned a fleet, the com- 
mand of which he gave to his son Paris, who, 
instead of obeying the paternal instructions, 
carried away Helen, the wife of Menelaus, 
king of Sparta. This caused the Trojan war, 
which lasted for ten years. At the end of the 
war Priam was slain by Neoptolemus, the son 
of Achilles. 

Pro'bus, M. Aure lius. A native of Pannonia. 
His father was a gardener, who became a 
military tribune. His son obtained the same 
office on the twenty-second year of his age, 
and distinguished himself so much by hispro- 



bity and valor that he was invested with the 
imperial purple. He encouraged the arts, 
and by his victories added to the glory of his 
country. He was slain by his soldiers in the 
fiftieth year of his age, B.C. 282. 

Proco'pius, born of a noble family in Cilicia, was 
related to the emperor Julian. He signalized 
himself under Julian, and afterward retired 
to the Thracian Chersonesus, whence he made 
his appearance at Constantinople, and pro- 
claimed himself master of the Eastern Em- 
pire. He was defeated in Phrygia, and be- 
headed A. D. 366. There was a famous Greek 
historian of the same name, who wrote the 
history of the reign of Justinian, and who was 
secretary to Belisarius. 

Prometheus. Ason of lapctusand Clymene. one 
of the Oceanides. He ridiculed the gods and 
deceived Jupiter himself, who, to punish him 
and the rest of mankind, took fire away from 
the earth ; but Prometheus climbed the heav- 
ens by the assistance of Minerva, and stole 
fire from the chariot of the sun, which he 
brought down to the earth. This provoked 
Jupiter, and he ordered Prometheus to be 
chained to a rock, where a vulture was to feed 
on his liver, which was never exhausted. He 
was delivered from his torture by Hercules, 
who killed the vulture. 

Proper'tius, Sex tus Aure lius. A Latin poet 
born in Umbria. He came to Rome, where 
his genius greatly reconmiended him to the 


great and powerful. His works, consist of 
four books of elegies which are marked by 
much al)ility. He died about nineteen years 


Proser pina, a daughter of Ceres and Jupiter, 
called by the Greeks Persephone. As she 
was gathering flowers Pluto carried her off to 
the infernal regions, where he married her. 
Ceres, having learnt that her daughter had 
been carried away by Pluto, demanded of 
Jupiter that Pluto should be punished. As 
queen of hell, Proserpine presided over the 
death of mankind. She was known by the 
names of Hecate, Juno Inferna, Libitina, and 
several others. 

Protag oras. A Greek philosopher of Abdera in 
Thrace. He wrote a book in which he denied 
the existence of a Supreme Being, which book 
was publicly burnt at Athens, and its author 
was banished from the city. 

Pro'tesila'us. A king of part of Thessaly who 
married Laodamia, and shortly afterward 
went to the Trojan war. He was the first of 
the Greeks who entered the Trojan domain, 
and on that account, in accordance with the 
prediction of the oracle, was killed by his 

Pro'teus. A sea deity, son of Oceanus and 
Tethys, or, according to some writers, of 
Neptune and Phenice. He had received the 
gift of prophecy from Neptune, but when 
consulted he often refused to give answers, 


and puzzled those who consulted him by as- 
suming different shapes. 

Psy'che. A nymph who married Cupid. Venus 
put her to death because of this, but Jupiter, 
at the request of Cupid, granted immortality 
to her. 

Ptolemae'us First, called Ptolemy, surnamed 
Lagus. A king of Egypt, son of Arsinoe and 
Lagus. He was educated in the court of the 
king of Macedonia, and when Alexander in- 
vaded Asia Ptolemy attended him. After 
Alexander's death Ptolemy obtained the gov- 
ernment of Egypt, where he gained the esteem 
of the people by acts of kindness. He made 
himself master of Phoenicia and Syria, and 
rendered assistance to the people of Rhodes 
against their enemies, for which he received 
the name of Soter. He laid the foundation of 
a library, which became the most celebrated 
in the world. He died in his eighty-fourth 
year, about 284 years b.c. He was succeeded 
by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus, who showed 
himself to be a w^orthy successor of his father. 
His palace was an asylum for learned men, 
and he greatly increased the library his father 
had founded. Ptolemy Third succeeded his 
father Philadelphus on the Egyptian throne. 
He conquered Syria and Cilicia, and returned 
home laden with spoils. He was, like his 
predecessors, a patron of learning and the 
arts. Ptolemy Fourth, called Philopater, 
succeeded to the throne, his reign being 


marked by acts of cruelty and oppression. 
He died in his thirty-seventh year, after a 
reign of seventeen years, 204 b.c. Numerous 
members of this celebrated family in succes- 
sion occupied the throne, not, however, ap- 
proaching to the greatness of the founders of 
the family. 

Ptolemae us. A celebrated geographer and astron- 
omer in the reign of Adrian and Antoninus. 
He was a native of Alexandria, or, as some 
say, of Pelusium. In his system of the world, 
designated the Ptolemaic system, he places 
the earth in the centre of the universe, which 
" was generally received as correct till it was 
confuted by Copernicus. 

Public'ola. A surname, signifying a friend of the 
common people, acquired by Publius Valerius. 
He assisted Brutus to expel the Tarquins, and 
won the victory in the battle in which Brutus 
and the sons of Tarquin had fallen. He was 
four times Consul, but died in poverty, and 
was buried at the public expense amidst gen- 
eral mourning. 

Pyr'rhus. A famous king of Epirus, son of 
^acides and Phthia. He wrote several books 
on encampments and the ways of training an 
army. He fought against the Romans with 
much valor, and they passed encomiums on 
his great military skill. He was killed in an 
attack on Argos, by a tile thrown on his head 
from a housetop. 

Pyr rhus. See Neoptolemus. 


Pythag oras. A celebrated philosopher born at 
Samos. He first made himself known in 
Greece at the Olympic games, where, when 
he was eighteen years old, he obtained the 
prize for wrestling. He also distinguished 
himself by his discoveries in geometry, as- 
tronomy, and mathematics. He was the first 
who supported the doctrine of metempsycho- 
sis, or transmigration of the soul into different 
bodies. He believed that the universe was 
created from a shapeless mass of passive mat- 
ter by the hands of a powerful Being, who was 
the mover and soul of the world, and of whose 
substance the souls of mankind were a portion. 
The time and place of death of this great phil- 
osopher are unknown, but some suppose that 
he died at Metapontum about 497 years b.v. 

Py then. A celebrated serpent sprung from the 
mud and stagnated waters which remained on 
the surface of the earth after the deluge of 
Deucalion. Apollo killed the monster. 

Quintilia'nus, Marcus Fa'bius, a celebrated 
rhetorician, born in Spain. He opened a 
school of rhetoric at Rome, and was the first 
who obtained a salary from the State as a 
public teacher. He died a.d. 95. 

Quin'tus Cur tius Ru'fus. A Latin historian sup- 
posed to have lived in the reign of Ve.spasian. 
He wrote a history of the reign of Alexander 
the Great. This woik is admired for the 
elegance of us diction. 


Regil'lus. A small lake in Latium, famous as 
being the scene of a great Roman victory, 
which forms the subject of a fine poem by 
Lord Macaulay, called "The Battle of the 
Lake Regillus," included in his "Lays of An- 
cient Rome." 

Reg ulus, M. Attil ius. A consul during the first 
Punic war. He reduced Brundusium, and in 
his second consulship he captured a great por- 
tion of the Carthaginian fleet. After further 
successes he was taken prisoner by the Cartha- 
ginians, who put him to death with refined 

Rhadaman thus. A son of Jupiter and Europa, 
He reigned in the Cyclades, where his rule 
was characterized by marked justice and im- 

Romulus. According t>) tradition the founder of 
Rome. He was a son of Mars and Ilia, and 
was twin brother of Remus. The twins were 
thrown into the Tiber, but were saved and 
suckled by a she- wolf till they were found by 
Faustulus, a shepherd, who brought them up. 
Disputes arising between the brothers in refer- 
ence to the building of the city, Romulus 
caused Remus to he slain. 

Ros'cius. A celebrated Roman actor. He died 
about 60 years h.c. 

Ru bicon. A small river in Italy. By crossing 
it, and thus transgressing the boundaries of 
his province, Cspsar declared wai' against the 
senate and P<jmpey. "Passing the Rubicon" 


has become a proverbial expression, indicat- 
ing an irrevocable step taken in any weighty 

Sacra, Vi'a. An important street in Rome, 
where a treaty of peace was made between 
Romulus and Tatius. 

Sal'amis. An island of Attica celebrated for a 
battle fought there between the fleets of the 
Greeks and the Persians, in which the latter 
suffered defeat. 

Sallus'tius, Cris'pus. A celebrated Latin his- 
torian. He wrote a history of the Catilinian 
conspiracy, and died thirty-five years before 
the Christian era. 

Sanchoni'athon. A Phoenician historian born at 
Berytus, or, as some say, at Tyre. He lived 
a few years before the Trojan war, and wrote 
on the antiquities of Phoenicia. 

Sa'por. A king of Persia, who succeeded to the 
throne about the 238th year of the Christian 
era. He wished to increase his dominions by 
conquest, but was defeated by Odenatus, who 
defeated his army with great slaughter. He 
was assassinated a.d. 273. 

Sa'por. The second king of Persia of that name, 
lie fought against the Romans, and obtained 
several victories over them. Died a.d. 380. 

Sap pho, celebrated for her beauty and poetical 
talents, was l)orn at Lesbos about 600 years 
before Christ She became enamored with 
Phaon, a youth of Mitylene; but he not re- 


ciprocatingher passion, she threw herself into 
the sea from the rock of Leucadia. Moore 
alludes to her fatal leap in his " Evenings in 
Greece :" 

" The very spot where Sappho sung 
Her swan-like music, ere she sprung 
(Still holding in that fearful leap, 
By her loved lyre) into the deep, 
And, dying, quenched the fatal fire 
At once, of both her heart and lyre." 

Sardanapa'lus. The last king of Assyria, cele- 
brated for his luxury and indolence. His 
effeminacy induced his subjects to conspire 
against him with success, on which he set fire 
to his palace and perished in the flames, B.C. 
820. Lord Byron has made his history the 
subject of a tragedy, in which he introduces 
as the heroine Myrrha, a Greek slave, who 
sets fire to a pile of inflammable materials 
which had been raised, and perishes with 
Sardanapalus, exclaiming as she applies the 
torch, — 

"Lo ! 

I've lit the lamp which lights us to the stars.'" 

The play of "Sardanapalus" is still occasion- 
ally produced on the stage. 
Satur'nus. The son of Coelus, or Uranus, by 
Terra. It was customary to offer human vic- 
tims on his altars till this custom was abol- 
ished by Hercules. He is generally repre- 
sented as an old man bent with age, and hold- 
ing a scythe in his right hand. 


Sat'yri. Demigods whose origin is unknown. 
They had the feet and legs of a goat, their 
body bearing the human form. 

Scae'vola, Mu'tius, surnamed Cordus, was famous 
for his courage. He attempted to assassinate 
Porsenna, but was seized ; and to show his 
fortitude when confronted with Porsenna, he 
thrust his hand into the fire, on which the 
king pardoned him. 

Scip'io. The name of a celebrated family at 
Rome, the most conspicuous of which was 
Publius Cornelius, afterward called Afri- 
canus. He was the son of Publius Scipio and 
commanded an army against the Carthagini- 
ans. After obtaining some victories, he en- 
countered Hannibal at the famous battle of 
Zama, in which he obtained a decisive vic- 
tory. He died about 184 years before Christ, 
in his forty eighth year. 

Scip'io, Lucius Cornelius, surnamed Asiaticus, 
accompanied his brother Africanus in his ex- 
pedition in Africa. He was made consul 
A.u.c. 562, and sent to attack Antiochus, king 
of Syria, whom he completely routed. He 
was accused <;f receiving bril)es of Antiochus. 
and was condemned to pay large fines which 
reduced him to poverty. 

Scip io, P. iEmilia'nus. Called Africanus the 
younger. He finished the war with Carthage, 
the total submission of which occurred a. v. 
147. The captive city was set on fiie, and 
Scipio is said to have wept bitterly over the 


melancholy scene. On his return to Rome he 
was appointed to conclude the war against 
Numantia, the fall of which soon occurred, 
and Scipio had Numantinus added to his 
name. He was found dead in his bed and 
was presumed to have been strangled, b.c. 

Sem ele. A daughter of Cadmus, and Hermione, 
the daughter of Mars and Venus. She was the 
mother of Bacchus. After death she was 
made immortal under the name of Thyone. 

Semir amis. A celebrated queen of Assyria, 
who married the governor of Nineveh, and at 
his death she became the wife of king Xinus. 
She caused many improvements to be effected 
in her kingdom, as well as distinguishing her- 
self as a warrior. She is supposed to have 
lived 1965 years before the Christian era. 

Sen'eca, L. Anrice'us, at an early period of his life, 
was distinguished by his talents. He became 
preceptor to Nero, in which capacity he gained 
general approbation. The tyrant, however, 
determined to put him to death, and he chose 
to have his veins opened in a hot bath, but 
death not ensuing, he swallowed poison, and 
was eventually suffocated by the soldiers who 
were in attendance. This occurred in his fifty- 
third year, and in the sixty-fifth of the Chris- 
tian era. His works, which were numerous, 
were chiefly on moral subjects. 

Sera pis. One of the Egyptian deities, supposed 
to be the same as Osiris. He had a mag- 


nificent temple at Memphis, another at Alex- 
andria, and a third at Canopus. 

Sesos tris. A celebrated king of Egypt, who 
lived long prior to the Trojan war. He was 
ambitious of military fame, and achieved 
many conquests. On his return from his vic- 
tories he employed himself in encouraging the 
fine arts. He destroyed himself after a reign 
of forty-four years. 

Seve rus, Lucius Septim'ius. A Roman emperor, 
born in Africa, noticeable from his ambition. 
He invaded Britain, and built a wall in the 
north as a check to the incursions of the Cale- 
donians. He died at York in the 211th year 
of the Christian era. 

Sile nus. A demigod, who is represented gener- 
ally as a fat old man riding on an ass, with 
flowers crowning his head. 

Sil'ius Ital'icus, C. A Latin poet who retired 
from the bar to consecrate his time to study. 
He imitated Virgil, but with little success. His 
poetry, however, is commended for its purity. 

Simon'ides. A celebrated poet of Cos who lived 
538 H. c. He wrote elegies, epigrams, and 
dramatic pieces, esteemed for their beauty. 

Sirenes. The Sirens. They lured to destruction 
those who listened to their songs. When 
Ulysses sailed past their island he stopped the 
ears of his companions with wax, and had 
himself tied to the mast of liis ship. Thus he 
passed with safety, and the Sirens, disap- 
pointed of their prey, drowned themselves. 


Sisyphus. Son of ^oius and Enaretta. After 
death he was condemned, in the infernal re- 
gions, to roll a stone to the summit of a hill, 
which always rolled back, and rendered his 
punishment eternal. 

Soc'rates. The most celebrated philosopher of 
antiquity, born near Athens, whose virtues 
rendered his name venerated. His indepen- 
dence of spirit created for him many enemies, 
and he was accused of making innovations in 
the religion of the Greeks. He was con- 
demned to death by drinking hemlock, and 
expired a few moments after imbibing the 
poison, in his seventieth year, b.c. 400. His 
wife was Xanthippe, remarkable for her 
shrewish disposition, for which her name has 
become proverbial. 

So'lon, one of the wise men of Greece, was born 
at Salamis and educated at Athens. After 
traveling over Greece he returned, and was 
elected archon and sovereign legislator, in 
which capacity he effected numerous reforms 
in the state, binding the Athenians by a solemn 
oath to observe the laws he enacted for one 
hundred years. After this he visited Egypt, 
and on returning to Athens after ten years' 
absence, he found most of his regulations dis- 
regarded by his countrymen. On this he re- 
tired to Cyprus, where he died in his eightieth 
year, 558 years before the Christian era. 

Som'nus, son of Nox and Erebus, was one of the 
infernal deities, and presided over sleep. 


Soph ocles. A celebrated tragic poet of Athens. 
He was distinguished also as a statesman, 
and exercised the office of archon with credit 
and honor. He wrote for the stage, and ob- 
tained the poetical prize on twenty different 
occasions. He was the rival of Euripides for 
public applause, each having his admirers. 
He died at the age of ninety-one, 406 years 
before Christ. 

Sophonis ba. A daughter of Hasdrubal, the 
Carthaginian, celebrated for her beauty. She 
married Syphax, prince of Numidia, and when 
he was conquered by the Romans she became 
a captive to their ally, the Numidian general 
Masinissa, whom she married. This dis- 
pleased the Romans, and Scipio ordered 
Masinissa to separate from Sophonisba, and 
she, urged to this by Masinissa, took poison, 
about 203 years before Christ. 

Soz'omen. A historian who died 450 a.d. He 
wrote an important work on ecclestiastical 

Sphinx. A monster, having the head and breasts 
of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail of a 
serpent, the wings of a bird, and the paws of 
a lion. The Sphinx was sent into the neigh- 
borhood of Thebes by Juno, where she pro- 
pounded enigmas, devouring those who were 
unable to solve them. One of the riddles pro- 
posed was— What animal walked on four legs 
in the morning, two at noon, and three in the 
evening? CEdipus solved it, giving as the 


meaning— x\ man. who when an infant crav.-led 
on his hands and feet, walking erect in man 
hood, and in the evening of life supporting 
himself with a stick. On hearing the solntion 
the Sphinx destroyed herself. 
Stagi ra, A town on the borders of Macedonia, 
where Aristotle was born ; hence he is called 
the Stagirite. 
Sta'tius, P. Papin ius. A poet, born at Naples 
in the reign of Domitian. He was the author 
of two epic poems, the Thebais in twelve 
books, and the Achilleis in two books. 
Stsii'tor. One of the Greeks who went to the 
Trojan war. He was noted for the loudness 
of his voice, and from him the term "sten- 
torian" has become proverbial. 
Sto'ici. A celebrated sect of philosophers founded 
by Zeno. They preferred virtue to all other 
things, and regarded everything opposed to it 
as an evil. 
Stra bo. A celebrated geographer, born at 
Amasia, on the borders of Cappadocia. He 
flourished in the age of Augustus. His work 
on geography consists of seventeen books, and 
is admired for its purity of diction. 
Styx. A celebrated river of the infernal regions: 
The gods held it in such veneration that they 
always swore by it, the oath being inviolable. 
Suetonius, C. Tranquillus. A Latin historian 
who became secretary to Adrian. His best 
known work is his "Lives of the Caesars." 
Sulla, See Sylla. 


Sybaris. A town on the ba}- of Tarentum. Its 
inhabitants were distinguished by their love 
of ease and pleasure, hence the term "Sybar- 

Syl'la (or Sulla) , L. Corne lius. A celebrated 
Roman, of a noble family, who rendered him- 
self conspicuous in military affairs, and be- 
came antagonistic to Marius. In the zenith of 
his power he was guilty of the greatest cruelty. 
Ilis character is that of an ambitious, tyran- 
nical, and resolute commander. He died 
about seventy years before Christ, aged sixty, 

Sy'phax. A king of the Masa^syllii in Numidia, 
who married Sophonisba, the daughter of 
Hasdrubal. He joined the Carthaginians 
against the Romans, and was taken by Scipio 
as a prisoner to Rome, where he died in prison. 

Tac'itus, C. Cornelius. A celebrated Latin his- 
torian, born in the reign of Nero. Of all his 
works the "Annals" is the most extensive and 
complete. His style is marked by force, pre- 
cision, and dignity, and his Latin is remark- 
able for being pure and classical. 

Tac'itus, M. Claudius. A Roman, elected em- 
peror by the Senate when he was seventy years 
of age. He displayed military vigor, and as 
a ruler was a pattern of economy and modera 
tion. He died in the 276th year of the Chris- 
tian era. 

Tantalus. A king of Lydia. father of Niobe and 
Pelops. He is represented by the poets as be- 

ct,assu:al dicttoxarv T93 

ing. in the infernal regions, placed in a pool 
of water, which receded from him whenever he 
attempted to drink, thus causing him to suffer 
perpetual thirst ; hence the origin of the term 

Tarquin'ius Pris cus, the fifth king of Rome, was 
son of Demaratus a native of Greece. He 
exhibited military talents in the victories he 
gained over the Sabines. During peace he 
devoted attention to the improvement of the 
capital. He was assassinated in his eightieth 
year, 578 years b.c. 

Tarquin'ius Super bus. He ascended the throne 
of Rome after Servius Tullius, whom, he mur- 
dered, and married his daughter Tullia. His 
reign was characterized by tyranny, and 
eventually he was expelled from Rome ; sur- 
viving his disgrace for fourteen years, and 
dying in his ninetieth year. 

Tartarus. One of the regions of hell, where, ac- 
cording to Virgil, the souls of those who were 
exceptionally depraved were punished. 

Telem'achus. Son of Penelope and Ulysses. At 
the end of the Trojan war he went in search 
of his father, whom, with the aid of Minerva, 
he found. Aided by Ulysses he delivered his 
mother from the suitors that beset her. 

Tem'pe. A valley in Thessaly through which th^ 
river Peneus flews into the ^gean. It is de- 
scribed by the poets as one of the most de- 
lightful places in the world. 

Terentius, Pub'lius (Terence), A native of 


Africa, celebrated for the comedies he wrote. 
He was twenty-five years old when his first 
play was produced on the Roman stage. Ter- 
ence is admired for the purity of his language 
and the elegance of his diction. He is sup- 
posed to have been drowned in a storm about 
159 B.C. 

Te'reus. A king of Thrace who married Procne, 
daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. He 
aided Pandion in a war against Megara. 

Terpsichore. One of the Muses, daughter of 
Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over 

TertuUia'nus, J. Septim ius Flor'ens. A cele- 
brated Christian writer of Carthage who lived 
A.D. 196. He was originally a pagan, but em- 
braced Christianity, of which faith he became 
an able advocate. 

Tha'is. A celebrated woman of Athens, who ac- 
companied Alexander the Great in his Asiatic 
conquests. She is alluded to by Dryden in 
his famous ode, "Alexander's Feast :" 

" The lovely Thais by his side 
Sate like a blooming Eastern bride 
In flower of youth and beauty's pride." 

Tha'les. One of the seven wise men of Greece, 
l)orn at Miletus in Ionia. His discoveries in 
astronomy were great, and he was the first who 
calculated with accuracy a solar eclipse. He 
died about 548 years before the Christian era. 

Thali'a. One of the Muses. She presided over 
festivals and comic poetry. 


Themis tocles. A celebrated general born at 
Athens. When Xerxes invaded Greece, 
Themistocles was entrusted with the care of 
the fleet, and at the famous battle of Salamis, 
fought B.C. 4S0, the Greeks, instigated to fight 
by Themistocles, obtained a complete victory 
over the formidable navy of Xerxes. He died 
in the sixty-fifth year of his age, having, as 
some writers affirm , poisoned himself by drink- 
ing bull's blood. 

Theoc'ritus. A Greek poet who lived at Syracuse 
in Sicily 282 b.c. He distinguished himself 
by his poetical compositions, of which some 
are extant. 

Theodo sius, Fla'vius. A Roman emperor sur- 
naraed Magnus from the greatness of his 
exploits. The first years of his reign were 
marked by conquests over the Barbarians. 
In his private character Theodosius was an 
example of temperance. He died in his six- 
tieth year, a.d. 395, after a reign of sixteen 

Theodosius Second became emperor of the West- 
ern Roman empire at an early age. His ter- 
ritories were invaded by the Persians, but on 
his appearance at the head of a large force 
they fled, losing a great number of their army 
in t"he Euphrates. Theodosius was a warm 
advocate of the Christian religion. He died 
aged forty-nine, a.d. 450. 

Theophras'tus. A native of Lesbos. Diogenes 
enumerates the titles of more than 200 treat- 


ises which he wrote. He died in his 107th 
year, b.c. 288. 
Thermopylae. A narrow pass leading from 
Thessaly into Locris and Phocis, celebrated 
for a battle fought there, b.c. 480, between 
Xerxes and the Greeks, in which three hun- 
dred Spartans, commanded by Leonidas, re- 
sisted for three successive days an enormous 
Persian arm^^ Lord Byron (" Childe Harold, " 
canto ii.), in an apostrophe to Greece, thus 
refers to the famous conflict : 

"Who now shall lead thy scatter'd children forth, 
And long-accustom'd bondage uncreate? 
Not such thy sons who whilome did await, 
The hopeless warriors of a willing doom, 
In bleak Thermopylae's sepulchi'al strait. 
Oil ! who that gallant spirit shall resume, 
Leap from Eurotas' banks, and call thee from the tomb ?" 

Thersi tes. A deformed Greek, in the Trojan 
war, who indulged in ridicule against Ulysses 
and others. Achilles killed him because he 
laughed at his grief for the death of Penthe- 
silea. Shakespeare, who introduces Thersites 
in his play of "Troilus and Cressida," de- 
scribes him as "a deformed and scurrilous 
Grecian. " 

Theseus, king of Athens and son of -^geus by 
^thra, was one of the most celebrated heroes 
of antiquity. He caught the bull of Marathon 
and sacrificed it to Minerva, After this he 
went to Crete amongst the seven youths sent 
yearly by the Athenians to be devoured by the 


Minotaur, and by the aid of Ariadne he slew 
the monster. He ascended his father's throne 
15. c. 1235. Pirithous, king of the Lapithas, in- 
vaded his territories, but the two became firm 
friends. They descended into the infernal re- 
gions to carry off Proserpine, but their inten- 
tions were frustrated by Pluto. After re- 
maining for some time in the infernal regions, 
Theseus returned to his kingdom to find the 
throne filled by an usurper, whom he vainly 
tried to eject. He retired to Scyros, where he 
was killed by a fall from a precipice. 

Thes'pis. A Greek poet of Attica, supposed to 
be the inventor of tragedy, b.c. 536. He went 
from place to place upon a cart, on which he 
gave performances. Hence the term "Thes- 
pians," as applied to wandering actors. 

The lis. A sea deity, daughter of Nereus and 
Doris. She married Peleus, their son being- 
Achilles, whom she plunged into the Styx, 
thus rendering him invulnerable in every part 
of his body except the heel by which she held 

This'be. A beautiful girl of Babylon, beloved by 

Thrasybu lus. A famous general of Athens, who, 
with the help of a few associates, expelled the 
Thirty Tyrants, b.c. 401 - He was sent with a 
powerful fleet to recover the Athenian power 
on the coast of Asia, and after gaining many 
advantages was killed by the people of A'=.- 


Thucyd ides. A celebrated Greek historian born 
at Athens. He wrote a history of the events 
connected with the Peloponnesian war. He 
died at Athens in his eightieth year, b.c. 391. 

Tibe rius, Clau dius Ne ro. A Roman emperor 
descended from the Claudii. In his early 
years he entertained the people with magnifi- 
cent shows and gladiatorial exhibitions, which 
made him popular. At a later period of his 
life he retired to the island of Capreas, where 
he indulged in vice and debauchery. He died- 
aged seventy-eight, after a reign of twenty- 
two years. 

Tibullus, Au'lus Al bias. A Roman knight cele 
brated for his poetical compositions. His 
favorite occupation was writing love-poems. 
Four books of elegies are all that remain of his 

Time leon. A celebrated Corinthian, son of 
Timodemus and Demariste. When the Syra- 
cusans, oppressed with the tyranny of Diony- 
sius the Younger, solicited aid from the Cor- 
inthians, Timoleon sailed for Syracuse with a 
small fleet. He was successful in the ex- 
pedition, and Dionysius gave himself up as a 
prisoner, Timoleon died at Syracuse, amidst 
universal regret. 

Ti'mon. A native of Athens, called the Misan- 
thrope from his aversion to mankind. Ho is 
the hero of Shakespeare's play of "Timon of 
Athens," in wliich his churlish character is 
powerfully delineated. 


Timo theus. A famous musician in the time of 
Alexander the Great. Dryden names him in 
his well-known ode," Alexander's Feast:" 

" Timotheus, placed on high 
Amid the Uineful quire, 
With flying fingjrs touched the lyre; 
The trembling notes ascend the sky, 
And heavenly ;oys inspire." 

Tire'sias. A celebrated prophet of Thebes. Juno 
deprived him of sight, and, to recompense 
him for the loss, Jr.piter bestowed on him the 
gift of prophecy. 

Tisiphone. One of the Furies, daughter of Xox 
and Acheron. 

Tita nes. The Titans. A name given to the 
gigantic sons A Coelus and Terra. The most 
conspicuous of them are Saturn, Hyperion, 
Oceanus, lapetus, Cottus, and Briareus. 

Titus Vespasia'nus. Son of Vespasian and 
Flavia Domitilla, known by his valor, par- 
ticularly at the siege of Jerusalem. He had 
been distinguished for profligacy, but on as- 
suming the purple, he became a model of 
virtue. His death, which occasioned great 
lamentations, occurred a. d. 81, in the forty- 
first year of his age. 

Traja'nus, M. Ul pius Crini tus. A Roman em- 
peror born at Ithaca. His services to the em- 
pire recommended him to the notice of the 
emperor Nerva, who adopted him as his son, 
and invested him with the purple. The ac- 
tions of Trajan were those of a benevolent 


prince. He died in Cilicia, in August a.d. 
117, in his sixty-fourth year, and his ashes 
were taken to Rome and deposited under a 
stately column which he had erected. 

Tribu ni Pie bis. Magistrates at Rome created in 
the year u.c. 261 The office of Tribune to 
the people was o..e of the first steps which 
led to more honorable employments. 

Triptolemus. Son of Oceanus and Terra, or, ac- 
cording to some authorities, son of Celeus, 
king of Attica, and Neaera. He was in his 
youth cured of a severe illness by Ceres, with 
whom he became a great favorite. She 
taught him agriculture, and gave him her 
chariot drawn by dragons, in which he trav- 
eled over the earth, distributing corn to the 

Tri ton. A sea deity, son of Neptune and Am- 
phitrite. He was very powerful, and could 
calm the sea and abate storms at his pleasure. 

Triumviri. Three magistrates appointed to gov- 
ern the Roman state with absolute power. 

Tul'lus Hostil ius succeeded Numa as king of 
Rome. He was of a warlike disposition, and 
distinguished himself by his expedition 
against the people of Alba, whom he con- 

TyphcEus, or Ty phon. A famous giant, son of 
Tartarus and Terra, who had a hundred 
heads. He made war against the gods, and 
was put to Might by the thunderbolts of Jupiter, 
■\vho crushed him under Mount ^tna. 


Tyrtae'us. A Greek elegiac poet born in Attica. 
Of his compositions none are extant except a 
few fragments. 

Ulys ses. The famous king of Ithaca, son of An- 
ticlea and Laertes (or, ajcording tc some, of 
Sisyphus) . He married Penelope, daughter 
of Icarius, on which his father resigned to 
him the crown. He went to the Trojan war, 
where he was esteemed f c r his sagacity. On 
the conclusion of the wr.r he embarked for 
Greece, but was exposed to numerous mis- 
fortunes on his journey. In his wanderings, 
he, with some of his companions, was seized 
by the Cyclops, Polyphemus, from whom he 
made his escape. Afterward h: was thrown 
on the island of ^ea, where he was exposed 
to the wiles of the enchantress Circe. Eventu- 
ally he was restored to hio own country, after 
an absence of twenty years. The adventures 
of Ulysses on his return from the Trojan war 
form the subject of Homer's Odyssey. 
Urania. One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. She presided over as- 

Valentinia'nus the First. Son of Gratian, raised 
to the throne by his merit and valor. He 
obtained victories over the Barbarians in Gaul 
and in Africa, and punished the Onadi with 
severity. He broke a blood-vessel and died, 
A.D, 375. Immediately after his death, his 


son, Valentinian the Second, was proclaimed 
emperor. He was robbed of his throne by 
Maximus, but regained it by the aid of Theo- 
dosius, emperor of the East. He was strangled 
by one of his officers. He was remarkable for 
benevolence and clemency. The third Valen- 
tinian was made emperor in his youth, and on 
coming to maturer age he disgraced himself 
by violence and oppression . He was murdered 
A.D. 454. 

Valeria nus, Pub lius Licin ius. A celebrated 
Roman emperor, who, on ascending the 
throne, lost the virtues he had previously pos- 
sessed. He made his son Gallienus his col- 
league in the empire. He made war against 
the Goths and Scythians. He was defeated 
in battle and made prisoner by Sapor, king 
of Persia, who put him to death by torture. 

Var'ro. A Latin author, celebrated for his great 
learning. He wrote no less than five hundred 
volumes, but all his works are lost except a 
treatise De Re Rustica, and another De Lin- 
gua Latina. He died u.c. 28, in his eighty- 
eighth year. 

Venus. One of the most celebrated deities of the 
ancients; the goddess of beauty, and mother 
of love. She sprang from the foam of the sea, 
and was carried to heaven, where all the gods 
admired her beauty. Jupiter gave her in mar- 
riage to Vulcan, but she intrigued with some 
of the gods, and notal^ly with Mars, their ofif 
spring );eing Hermione, Cupid, and Anteros. 


She became enamored of Adoais, which 
caused her to abandon Olympus. Her con- 
test for the golden apple, which she gained 
against her opponents Juno and Minerva, is a 
prominent episode in mythology. She had 
numerous names applied to her, conspicuous 
amongst which may be named Anadyomene, 
under which cognomen she is distinguished by 
the picture, representing her as rising from 
the ocean, by Apelles. She was known under 
the Grecian name of Aphrodite. 

Vespasia nus, Titus Flavius. A Roman emperor 
of obscure descent. He began the siege of 
Jerusalem, which was continued by his son 
Titus. He died a.d. 79, in his seventieth 

Ves ta. A goddess, daughter of Rhea and Saturn. 
The Palladium, a celebrated statue of Pallas, 
was supposed to be preserved within her 
sanctuary, where a fire was kept continually 

Vesta les. The Vestals, priestesses consecrated to 
the service of Vesta. They were required to 
be of good families and free from blemish and 
deformity. One of their chief duties was to 
see that the sacred fire of Vesta was not ex- 

Virgilius, Pub lius Ma ro, called the prince of the 
Latin poets, was born at Andes, near Mantua, 
about seventy years before Christ. He went 
to Rome, where he formed an acquaintance 
with Maecenas, and recommended himself to 


Augustus. His Bucolics were written in about 
three years, and subsequently he commenced 
the Georgics, which is considered one of the 
most perfect of all Latin compositions. The 
^^neid is supposed to have been undertaken at 
the request of Augustus. Virgil died in his 
fifty- first year b.c. ig. 

Virginia. Daughter of the centurion L. Vir- 
ginius. She was slain by her father to save 
her from the violence of the decemvir, Appius 

Virgin'ius. A valiant Roman father of Virginia. 
(See Virginia.) The story of Virginius and 
his ill-fated daughter is the subject of the 
well-known tragedy of "Virginius," one of 
the early productions of J. Sheridan Knowles. 
It is rarely performed in the present day. 

Vulca'nus. The god who presided over fire, and 
who was the patron of those who worked in 
iron. According to Homer, he was the son 
of Jupiter and Juno, and was so deformed 
that at his birth his mother threw him into 
the sea, where he remained nine years; but 
other writers differ from thi.i opinion. He 
married Venus at the instigation of Jupiter. 
He is known by the name of Mulciber. The 
Cyclopes were his attendants, and with them 
he forged the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 

Xanthippe or Xantip pe. 'i'he wife of Socrates, 
remarkable for her ill humor and fretful dis- 
position. She was a constant torment to her 


husband, and on one occasion, after bitterly 
reviling him, she emptied a vessel of dirty 
water on him, on which the philosopher coolly 
remarked, "After thunder rain generally 
Xenoc'rates. An ancient philosopher born at 
('alcedonia, and educated in the school of 
Plato, whose friendship he gained. Died B.C. 


Xen'ophon. A celebrated Athenian, son of 
Gryllus, famous as a general, philosopher, 
and historian. He joined Cyrus the Younger 
in an expedition against Artaxerxes, king of 
Persia, and after the decisive battle of Cunaxa, 
in which Cyrus was defeated and killed, the 
skill and bravery of Xenophon became con- 
spicuous. He had to direct an army of ten 
thousand Greeks, who were now more than 
six hundred leagues from home, and in a 
country surrounded by an active enemy. He 
rose superior to all difficulties till the cele- 
brated "Retreat of the Ten Thousand" was 
effected ; the Greeks returning home after a 
march of two hundred and fifteen days. 
Xenophon employed his pen in describing the 
expedition of Cyrus, in his work the "Ana- 
basis." He also wrote the "Cyropaedia." 
"Memorabilia." "Hellenica," etc. He died 
at Corinth in his ninetieth year, about 360 
years before the Christian era. 

Xer'xes succeeded his father Darius on the throne 
of Persia. He entered Greece with an im- 


mense Army, which was. cliecked at Ther- 
mopylas by the valor of three hundred Spar- 
tans under king Leonidas, who for three 
successive days successfully opposed the 
enormous forces of Xerxes, and were at last 
slaughtered. From this period the fortunes 
of Xerxes waned. His fleet being defeated 
at Salamis, and mortified with ill-success, he 
hastened to Persia, where he gave himself up 
to debauchery, and was murdered in the 
twenty-first year of his reign, about 464 years 
before the Christian era. 

Za ma. A town of Numidia, celebrated as the 
scene of the victory of Scipio over Hannibal, 
K.c. 202. 

Ze'no, a celebrated philosopher, the founder of 
the sect of Stoics, was born at Citium in 
Cyprus. He opened a school in Athens, and 
soon became noticed by the great and learned. 
His life was devoted to sobriety and modera- 
tion. He died at the age of ninety-eight, 

Ze'no. A philosopher of Elea or Velia, in Italy. 
He was the disciple, or, according to some, 
the adopted son of Parmenides. Being tor- 
tured to cause him to reveal his confederates 
in a plot he had engaged in, he bit off his 
tongue that he might not betray his friends. 

Zeno bia. A celebrated princess of Palmyra, the 
wife of Odenatus. After her husband's death, 
the Roman emperor Aurelian declared war 


She took the field ^vith seven 
hundred thousand men, and though at first 
successful, she was eventually conquered. 
Aurelian. when she became his prisoner, 
treated her with great humanity and con- 
sideration. She was admired for her literary 
talents as well as her military abilities. 

Zeux'is. A celebrated painter born at Heraclea. 
He flourished 46S years before the Christian 
era. He painted some grapes so naturally 
that the birds came to peck them on the can- 
vas ; but he was disgusted with the picture, 
because the man painted as carrying the 
grapes was not natural enough to frighten the 

Zo ilus. A sophist and grammarian of Am- 
phipolis, B.C. 259. He became known by his 
severe criticisms on the works of Isocratesand 

Zoroaster. A king of Bactria, supposed to have 
lived in the age of Ninus, king of Assyria, 
.some time before the Trojan war. He ren- 
dered himself known by his deep researches 
in philosophy. He admitted no visible object 
of devotion except fire, which he considered 
the proper emblem of a Supreme Being. He 
was respected by his subjects and contem- 
poraries for his abilities as a monarch, a law- 
giver, and a philosopher, and. though many of 
his doctrines may be deemed puerile, he had 
many disciples. The religion of the Parsees 
of the present day was founded by Zoroaster. 

2o8 cF.AssirAi. ivrrioxARV 

Zos imus. A Greek historian, ^ bo lived about 
the year 410 of the Christian era. He wrote 
a history of some of the Roman emperors, 
which is characterized by graceful di tion, but 
he indulges in malevolent and vicuperativo 
attacks on the Christians in his History of 

Zos'teria. A surname of Minerva. She had two 
statues under that name in the city of Thebes, 
in Boeotia. The word signified girt, or armed 
for battle, words synonymous among the an- 


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By Agnes H. Morton 
There is no passport to good society like good 
manners. P]ven though a person possess wealth 
and intelligence, his success in life may be marred 
by ignorance of social customs. A perusal of this 
book will prevent such blunders. It is a book for 
everybody, for the select sets as well as for the less 
ambitious. The subject is presented in a bright and 
interesting manner, and represents the latest vogue 



By Agnes H. Morton 

Why do most persons dislike letter writing? Is it 
not because they cannot say the right thing in the 
right place? This admirable book not only sliows 
by numerous examples just what kind of letters to 
write, but by directions and suggestions enables the 
reader to become an accomplished original letter 
writer. There are forms for all kinds of business 
and social letters, including invitations, acceptances, 
letters of sympathy, congratulations, and love letter*. 


By Agnes H. Morton 
A. clever compilation of pithy quotations, selected 
from a great variety of sources, and alphabetically 
arranged according to the sentiment. In addition 
to all the popular quotations in current use, it con- 
tains many rare bits of prose and verse not generally 
found in similar collections. An important feature 
of the book is the characteristic lines from well 
known authors, in which the familiar sayings ai* 
tr edited to their original sources. 


By John H. Bechtel 

It is a comparatively easy task to fill a book with 
a mass of uninteresting statistical matter. It is quite 
another thing to get together a vast accumulation of 
valuable material on all conceivable subjects. This 
book is thoroughly up to date, and embraces many 
subjects not usually found in works of this kind. 
It contains information for everybody, whether it 
pertains to health, household, business, affairs of 
state, foreign countries, or the planets, and all most 
conveniently indexed. 


By John ri. Bechtei 
The average person dislikes to look up a mytho- 
logical subject because of the time occupied. This 
book remedies that difficult}^ because in it can be 
found at a glance just what is wanted. It is compre- 
hensive, convenient, condensed, and the information 
is presented in such an interesting manner as when 
once read to be always remembered. A distinctive 
feature of the book is the pronunciation of the 
proper names, something found in few other works. 


By John H. Bechtei 

Who does not make them ? Tlie best of us do. Why 
aot avoid them ? Any one inspired with the spirit 
of self-improvement can readily do so. No neces- 
sity for studying rules of grammar or rhetoric when 
this book can be had. It teaches both without the 
study of either. It is a counsellor, a critic, a com- 
panion, and a guide, and is written in a most 
entertaining and chatty style. 


By John H. Bechtel 

What is more disagreeable than a faulty pronuncia- 
tion ? No other defect so clearly shows a lack of 
culture. This book contains over 5,000 words on 
which most of us are apt to trip. They are here 
pronounced in the clearest and simplest manner, 
and according to the best authority. It is more 
readily consulted than a dictionary, and is just as 


By John H. Bechtel 

Any one with the least desire to add to his vocabu* 
lary or to improve his choice of words should have 
a copy of this book. It is designed mainly to meet 
the wants of busy merchants or lawyers, thoughtful 
clergymen or teachers, and wide-awake school-boys 
or girls who are ambitious to express the thouulits 
of the mind in more fitting phrases than they are 
at present capable of doing. 



By William Pittcngcr 
Most men dread being called upon to respond to a 
toast or to make an address. What would you not 
give for the ability to be rid of this embarrassment ? 
No need to give much when you can learn the art 
from this little book. It will tell you how to do it; 
not only that, but by example it will show tbe way. 
It is v;il liable not alone to the novice, but the 
experienced speaker will gather from it many 



By William ^ittenger 
Thore is no greater ability than the power of skillful 
and forcible debate, and no accomplishment more 
readily acquired if the person is properly directed. 
In this little volume are directions for organizing 
and conducting debating societies and practical sug- 
gestions for all who desire to discuss questions in 
public. There is also a list of over 200 questions for 
debate, with arguments both athrmativeand negative 



By Paul Allardyce 
Few persons can punctuate properly ; to avoid mis- 
takes, many do not punctuate at all. A perusal of 
this book will remove all difficulties and make all 
points clear. The rules are clearly stated and freely 
illustrated, thus furnishing a most useful volume. 
The author is everywhere recognized as the leading 
authority upon the suljject, and what he has to say 
is practical, concise, and comprehensive. 


By Henry Ward Bccchcr 
It must be conceded that few men ever enjoyed a 
wider experience or achieved a higher reputation 
in the realm of public oratory than Mr. Beecher. 
What he had to say on this subject was born of 
experience, and his own inimitable style was at once 
both statement and illustration of his theme. This 
volume is a unique and masterly treatise on the 
fundamental principles of true oratory. 


By J. P. Mahaffy 
Some people ave accused of talking too much. Btit 
no one is ever taken to task for talking too well. Of 
all the accomplishments of modern society, that of 
being an agreeable conversationalist holds first place. 
Nothing is more delightful or valuable. To suggest 
what to say just how and when to say it, is the 
general aiux of this work, and it succeeds mu?* 
admirably in its purpose. 


By Ernest Legouve 

rhe ability to read aloud well, whether at the fire- 
side or on the i)ublic platform, is certainly a fine art. 
The directions and suggestions contained in this 
work of standard authority will go far toward the 
attainment of tbis delightful and valuable accom- 
plishment. Tiie work is especially recommended to 
teachers and others interested in the instruction of. 
public richu.»l pUpilci. 


By Dean Rivers 

Conundrums are intellectual exercises which sharpen 
our wits and lead us to think quickly. They are also 
a source of infinite pleasure and amusement, whiling 
away tedious hours and putting every one in a 
general good humor. This book contains an excel- 
lent collection of over a thousand of the latest, bright- 
est, and most up-to-date conundrums, to which are 
added many Biblical, poetical and French conun^ 


By Cavendish Twenty-third Edition 

*' According to Cavendish " is now almost as familiar 
an expression as " according to Hoyle." No whist 
player, whether a novice or an expert, can afford to 
bwj without the aid and support of Cavendish. No 
household in which the game is played is complete 
without a copy of tliis book. This edition contains 
all of the matter found in the English publication 
and at one-fourth the cost. 


By Helen E. HolHster 
" What shall we do to amuse ourselves and our 
friends?" is a question frequently propounded on 
rainy days and long winter evenings. This volume 
most happily answers this question, as it contains a 
S})lendid collection of all kinds of games for amuse- 
ment, entertainment, and instruction. The games 
are adapted to both old and young, as all classes 
will find them both profitable and interesting. 


By Julia MacNair Wright 
Can you tell what causes day and night, seasons and 
years, tides and eclipses ? Why is the sky blue and 
Mars red ? What are meteors and shooting stars ? 
These and a thousand other (juestions are answered 
in a most fascinating way in this highly interesting 
volume. Few books contain as much valuable 
material so }»leasantly packed in so small a space. 


By Tulia MacNair Wright 
The scientific study of Botany made as interesting 
as a fairy tale. It is better reading than such tales, 
because of the protit. Each chajiter is devoted to the 
month of the year in which plants of that month 
are in evidence. Xot onl v is the subject treated with 
Ijotanical accuracy, Init there is given much prac- 
tical information pertaining to the care and treat' 
ment of plants and flowers. 



By Eben E. Rexford 

Every woman loves flowers, but few succeed in grow- 
ing them. \Mth the help so clearly given in this 
book no one need fail. It treats mainly of indoor 
flowers and plants — those for window gardening ; all 
about their selection, car 3, soil, air, light, warmth, 
etc. The chapter on table decoration alone is worth 
the price of the book. 


By Marguerite "Wilson 
A complete instructor, beginning with the first 
positions and steps and leading up to the squara and 
round dances. It contains also a full list of calls for 
all of the square dances, and the necessary music 
for each figure, the etiquette of the dances, and 100 
figures for the german. It is unusually well illus- 
trated by a large number of original drawings. 
Without doubt the best book on the subject. 


By Henry Frith 
There is to-day probably no more popular character 
study than that of Palmistry, Many more people 
would be interested in it if there were a convenient 
book that came within their comprehension and that 
was reliable. This volume furnishes full and trust- 
worthy information on the siil)ject, and with a little 
practice any person will be able to read character, 
recall past events, and forecast future occurrences, 
upon examination of the hand. Fully illustrated. 


By Paschall H. Coggins, Esq» 
IVlost legal difficulties arise from ignorance of the 
minor points of law. This book furnishes to the busy 
man and woman information on just such points as 
are most likely to arise in everj^-day affairs, and thus 
forestalls them against mental worry and financial 
loss. Not only is this information liberally given, 
but every point is so explained by means of a prac- 
tical illustration that the reader will not only under- 
stand the law on the subject, but cannot fail to 
^♦^member it. ^ 


By Edward S. Ellis, A. M, 
All literature, even the daily papers, abound in classi- 
cal allusions, but only a few persons understand their 
meaning. The interest and value of what is read 
and heard will be greatly enhanced by the possession 
of this unique volume. It contains all the classical 
allusions worth knowing, and so ready of access as 
to require little or no time in looking up. Its con- 
venient size will cause it to be frequently consulted 
when a large and cumbersome volume would ba 


By Edward S. Ellis, A. M. 

All modern biography finds not only its origin but 
its model in the lives of the ancient Greeks and 
Romans as set forth by Plutarch. In this condensed 
yet comprehensive work only such personages are 
mentioned as are most likely to be inquired about, 
and the information pertaining to them is of just 
such a nature as will be of the greatest interest. 
The book is especially adapted for use in public and 
private schools, and by busy men and women in 
every sphere of life. 


By Horace Hutchinson 

There is no more popular outdoor sport than golf. 
No one desiring to keep up with outdoor athletics 
can afford to be without a knowledge of it. This 
book gives a comi)lete history of the subject, together 
with instructions for the selection of implements, 
and complete directions for playing. There is 
in addition a complete glossary of golf terms, to- 
gether with the rules and eti([uette of the game. 


By EUis Stanyoo 
There is no more delightful form of entertainment 
than that afforded by the performances of a magi- 
cian. This book so clearly states everything that 
anyone with ordinary intelligence can very soon 
learn to perform any trick that it contains. It 
embraces full and detailed descriptions of all the 
well-known tricks with coins, handkerchiefs, billiard 
balls, hats, flowers, and cards, together with a 
number of novelties not previously produced ot 
explained. Fully illustrated. 


By S. Virginia Levis 
No household is permanently free from sickness, and 
it generally appears when no provision has been 
made for it. Not everyone can aft'ord or can secure 
a professional nurse, but no one need be without 
this valuable work. It is the next best thing to a 
trained nurse. The fullest particulars are given for 
the care of the sick in all the simple as well as the 
serious ailments from childhood to old age. 

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